2 Objectives (1.2.1 and 1.2.2) The students will be able to: solve linear equations and inequalities.determine the equation for a line.describe solutions using numbers, symbols, and/or graphs.
3 Recall the order of operations as you answer these questions. To solve two-step equations, “undo” the operations by working backwards.Recall the order of operations as you answer these questions.Dividing by 2Subtracting 3Example:Ask yourself:What is the first thing we are doing to x?What is the second thing?To undo these steps, do the opposite operations in opposite order.
4 Use a DO-UNDO chart as a shortcut to answering the questions Use a DO-UNDO chart as a shortcut to answering the questions. In the table, write the opposite operations in the opposite orderDO UNDO÷2-3Follow the steps in the ‘undo’ column to isolate the variable.Draw “the river”Add 3 to both sidesSimplifyClear the fraction -Multiply both sides by 2Check your answer+3· 2= - 4x = -8-4 – 3 = -72 · · 2
5 1) Solve 2x - 1 = -3 + 1 + 1 2x = -2 2 2 x = -1 2(-1) - 1 = -3 D U1) Solve 2x - 1 = -3· 2- 1+ 1÷ 22x = -2x = -12(-1) - 1 = -3-2 – 1 = -3Draw “the river”Add 1 to both sidesSimplifyDivide both sides by 2Check your answer
6 2) Solve 3y – 1 = 8A. y = 3B. y = -3C. y =D. y =Answer: A
7 3) SolveA. d = -7B. d = -19C. d = -17D. d = 17Answer: B
8 Sample HSA Problem:Alexis has $345 in her savings account and will deposit $15 each week. Alexis will not withdraw any money from her savings account.After how many weeks will she have $1,035?Answer: 46 weeks
9 What if there are variables on both sides of the equation?
10 1) Solve: 3x + 2 = 4x - 1You need to get the variables on one side of the equation. It does not matter which variable you move. Try to move the one that will keep your variable positive.
11 1) Solve 3x + 2 = 4x - 1 - 3x - 3x 2 = x - 1 + 1 + 1 3 = x 3 = x3(3) + 2 = 4(3) - 19 + 2 =Draw “the river”Subtract 3x from both sidesSimplifyAdd 1 to both sidesCheck your answer
12 What is the value of x if 3 - 4x = 18 + x? B.C.D. 3Answer: A
13 3) Solve 4 = 7x - 3x 4 = 4x 4 4 1 = x 4 = 7(1) - 3(1) 1 = x4 = 7(1) - 3(1)Draw “the river”.– Notice the variables are on the same side!2. Combine like terms.3. Divide both sides by 4.4. Simplify.5. Check your answer.
14 What is the value of x if -3 + 12x = 12x - 3? B. 4C. No solutionsD. Infinite solutionsAnswer: D
15 Solving an Inequality: Solve 5z + 16 < 51A. z < -35B. z < -7C. z < 35D. z < 7Answer: D
16 Solve: -7(x - 3) < -7 - 21 - 21 -7x < -28 -7 -7 x > 4 -7x < -28x > 4Note: >Draw “the river”.Distribute -7.Subtract 21 from both sides.4. Simplify.5. Divide both sidesby -7.Simplify.Check your answer.WHY is < reversed???
17 Let’s look at #14 in your packet: Which of these graphs represent the solution set of the inequality?A-4-224B-4-224.C-4-224D-4-224Answer: B
18 Definition of SlopeDefinition of SLOPE: the ratio of the vertical and horizontal distances between any two points on a line.Informally you will see some of these:the slope = the rate of change
21 Counting the slope, given a graph Step 2: up=pos down = neg right=pos left= negStep 1: find 2 points-6(4, -2)(-2,8)+ 10Step 3:Slope = ____10-6Simplify = ____5-3
22 Counting the slope, given a graph No need to go further – Zero slopeNo need to go further – No slope
23 Finding the slope, given 2 points Remember our formula?3-124(x1, y1) (x2, y2)(2, 3) and (4, -1)(2, 3) and (4, -1)4m = ___-21=-2Don’t forget to simplify!
24 Finding the slope, given 2 points Remember our formula?6433(x1, y1) (x2, y2)(3,6) and (3, 4)(3,6) and (3, 4)2m = ___No slope=Remember when 0 is in the denominator
25 Slope as a rate of change A rate of change is a ratio like the slope.ex: miles per hour ► mi/hrper is represented by the fraction bar /people per year ► people/yearSample Problem:In 1990, a company had a profit of $1,300,000. In 1992, the company had a profit of $1,200,000. Find the average rate of change in dollars per year.dollarsyear1,300,000-=1,200,000-2100,000=19901992=- 50,000 dollars/yr
26 Practice:PositiveWhat type of slope is this?NegativeNoZero
30 Q: What is the y-intercept? A: the point where the line crosses the y-axisExample:The line crosses the y-axis at -2. So the y-intercept is the point (0,-2).
31 If we have the y-intercept and we can calculate the slope, then we can write the equation of the line.y=mx+bPut in slopePut in y-intercept
32 Write the equation of the line. 1)Find the y-intercept:b = 12)Find the slope:Let’s use the points(0,1) and (2,0) to find the slopem = -1/23) Write the equation:
33 Find the equation of the line. 1)Find the y-intercept:b = 42)Find the slope:Let’s use the points(0,4) and (-4,0) to find the slopem = 1/13) Write the equation:
34 Write the equation of the line. 1)Find the y-intercept:b = -32)Find the slope:The line has zero slope; m = 03) Write the equation:or
35 Write the equation of the line. 1)Find the y-intercept:There is none!2)Find the slope:The slope is undefined.3) Write the equation:Point to ponder:Why do you think this is the equation form instead of y=?
36 Locating the Intercepts without a Graph: Another way to describe the x and y-intercepts is to think about them as coordinate points on the graph.y-intercept: ( 0, ___)x is always 0.x-intercept: ( ___, 0)y is always 0.
37 Without graphing, describe what the graph of the equation would look like. Include information about the slope and y-intercept.1) y = -5x+3 2) y = -5Negative slopem = -5y-intercept (0,3)Zero slopem = 0y-intercept (0,-5)
38 What if you knew 2 points on a line? What extra step would you have to do to write the equation of the line?Answer: First find the slope, then substitute the coordinates of one point for x and y.
39 Example: Find the equation of the line that contains these points: (3, -6),(-5, 2)Slope =y = mx + by = -1x + bNow pick a point to use and solve for b.-6 = -1(3) + b-3 = b(Do you think it matters which point we use? Why not?)y = -1x - 3