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1 Practical Strategies for Making Math Far More Accessible to Our Students Steve Leinwand Phoenix 2/15/12

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But what does it mean for math to made more accessible? Look at what we face and why math so often doesnt work for many of our students: 2

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They forget – so we need to more deliberately review; They see it differently – so we need to accommodate multiple representations; They approach it differently – so we need to elicit, value and celebrate alternative approaches; They give ridiculous answers – so we need to focus on number sense and estimation; They dont understand the vocabulary – so we need to build language rich classrooms; They ask why do we need to know this – so we need to embed the math in contexts. 3

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Economic security and social well-being Innovation and productivity Human capital and equity of opportunity High quality education (literacy, MATH, science) Daily classroom math instruction So were clear on why this is so critical

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5 My message today is simple: We know what works. We know how to make math more accessible to our students Its instruction silly! K-1 Reading Gifted Active classes Questioning classes Thinking classes

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Its instruction, silly! Research, classroom observations and common sense provide a great deal of guidance about instructional practices that make significant differences in student achievement. These practices can be found in high-performing classrooms and schools at all levels and all across the country. Effective teachers make the question Why? a classroom mantra to support a culture of reasoning and justification. Teachers incorporate daily, cumulative review of skills and concepts into instruction. Lessons are deliberately planned and skillfully employ alternative approaches and multiple representationsincluding pictures and concrete materials as part of explanations and answers. Teachers rely on relevant contexts to engage their students interest and use questions to stimulate thinking and to create language-rich mathematics classrooms. 6

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Yes But how? 7

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8 Number from 1 to 6 1. What is 6 x 7? 2. What number is 1000 less than 18,294? 3. About how much is 32¢ and 29¢? 4. What is 1/10 of 450? 5. Draw a picture of 1 2/3 6. About how much do I weight in kg?

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9 Strategy #1 Incorporate on-going cumulative review into instruction every day.

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10 Implementing Strategy #1 Almost no one masters something new after one or two lessons and one or two homework assignments. That is why one of the most effective strategies for fostering mastery and retention of critical skills is daily, cumulative review at the beginning of every lesson.

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11 On the way to school: A fact of the day A term of the day A picture of the day An estimate of the day A skill of the day A measurement of the day A word problem of the day

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12 A thought on time (those tricky first 5 minutes) 5 minutes x 180 days = 900 minutes 900 minutes ÷ 60 = 15 hours 15 hours – ½ of a college course 15 hours – one/hour week of tutoring for a semester Thats a lot of time!

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Or in 2 nd grade: How much bigger is 9 than 5? What number is the same as 5 tens and 7 ones? What number is 10 less than 83? Draw a four-sided figure and all of its diagonals. About how long is this pen in centimeters? 13

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14 Good morning Boys and Girls Number from 1 to 5 1. What is the value of tan (π/4)? 2. Sketch the graph of (x-3) 2 + (y+2) 2 = What are the equations of the asymptotes of f(x) = (x-3)/(x-2)? 4. If log 2 x = -4, what is the value of x? 5. About how much do I weight in kg?

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15 Consider how we teach reading: JANE WENT TO THE STORE. -Who went to the store? -Where did Jane go? -Why do you think Jane went to the store? -Do you think it made sense for Jane to go to the store?

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16 Now consider mathematics: TAKE OUT YOUR HOMEWORK. #1 19 # #3 185 (No why? No how do you know? No who has a different answer?)

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17 Strategy #2 Adapt from what we know about reading (incorporate literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension to develop stronger neural connections)

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18 Tell me what you see

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19 Tell me what you see /4

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20 Tell me what you see ¼ f(x) = x 2 + 3x - 5

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21 Strategy #3 Create a language rich classroom. (Vocabulary, terms, answers, explanations)

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22 Implementing Strategy #3 Like all languages, mathematics must be encountered orally and in writing. Like all vocabulary, mathematical terms must be used again and again in context and linked to more familiar words until they become internalized. Area = covering Quotient = sharing Perimeter = border Mg = grain of sand Cos = bucket Cubic = S Circumference = a belt Surface area = skin Tan = sin/cos = y/x for all points on the unit circle

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23 Ready, set, picture….. three quarters Picture it a different way.

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24 Why does this make a difference? Consider the different ways of thinking about the same mathematics: 2 ½ + 1 ¾ $ $ ½ + 1 ¾

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25 Ready, set, show me…. about 20 cms How do you know?

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26 Ready, set, picture….. y = sin x y = 2 sin x y = sin (2x)

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27 Strategy #4 Draw pictures/ Create mental images/ Foster visualization

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28 Implementing Strategy #4 Show me with your hands about 8 inches Use your fingers to show me about 10 sq.in. Draw three different pictures of 2 ½ Picture 1.2 Describe your picture

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29 The power of models and representations Siti packs her clothes into a suitcase and it weighs 29 kg. Rahim packs his clothes into an identical suitcase and it weighs 11 kg. Sitis clothes are three times as heavy as Rahims. What is the mass of Rahims clothes? What is the mass of the suitcase?

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30 The old (only) way: Let S = the weight of Sitis clothes Let R = the weight of Rahims clothes Let X = the weight of the suitcase S = 3R S + X = 29 R + X = 11 so by substitution: 3R + X = 29 and by subtraction: 2R = 18 so R = 9 and X = 2

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31 Or using a model: 11 kg Rahim Siti 29 kg

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32 You choose: 1.59 ) 10 vs. You have $10. Big Macs cost $1.59 SO?

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33 You choose…. The one right way to get the one right answer that no one cares about and isnt even asked on the state tests vs. Where am I? (the McDonalds context) Ten? Convince me. About how many? How do you know? Exactly how many? How do you know? Oops – On sale for $1.29 and I have $20.

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34 You choose: Given: F = 4 (S – 65) + 10 Find F when S = 81. Vs. The speeding fine in Vermont is $4 for every mile per hour over the 65 mph limit plus $10 handling fee.

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35 You choose: Solve for x: 16 (.75) x < 1 vs. You ingest 16 mg of a controlled substance at 8 a.m. If your body metabolizes 25% of the substance each hour, could you pass a drug test at 4 p.m. if the legal limit is 1 mg?

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36 Which class do YOU want to be in?

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37 Strategy #5 Embed the mathematics in contexts; Present the mathematics as problem situations.

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38 Implementing Strategy #5 Heres the math I need to teach. When and where do normal human beings encounter this math?

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39 Last and most powerfully: Make why? how do you know? convince me explain that please your classroom mantras

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40 Putting it all together one way Good morning class. Todays objective: Find the surface area of right circular cylinders. Open to page Example 1: S.A.= 2πrh + 2 πr 2 4 Find the surface area. Page odd

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41 Putting it all together another way Overheard in the ER as the sirens blare: Oh my, look at this next one. Hes completely burned from head to toe. Not a problem, just order up 1000 square inches of skin from the graft bank. You have two possible responses: -Oh good – that will be enough. OR -Oh god – were in trouble.

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42 Which response, oh good or oh god is more appropriate? Explain your thinking. Assuming you are the patient, how much skin would you hope they ordered up? Show how you arrived at your answer and be prepared to defend it to the class.

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43 To recapitulate: 1.Incorporate on-going cumulative review 2.Parallel literal to inferential to evaluative comprehension used in reading 3. Create a language-rich classroom 4.Draw pictures/create mental images 5.Embed the math in contexts/problems And always ask them why? For copies: See also: Accessible Math by Heinemann

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Thank you! 44

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