Presentation on theme: "Practical Strategies for Making Math Far More Accessible to Our Students Steve Leinwand Phoenix 2/15/12 SLeinwand@air.org."— Presentation transcript:
1Practical Strategies for Making Math Far More Accessible to Our Students Steve Leinwand Phoenix 2/15/12
2But what does it mean for math to made more accessible? Look at what we face and why math so often doesn’t work for many of our students:
3They forget – so we need to more deliberately review; They see it differently – so we need to accommodate multiple representations;They approach it differently – so we need to elicit, value and celebrate alternative approaches;They give ridiculous answers – so we need to focus on number sense and estimation;They don’t understand the vocabulary – so we need to build language rich classrooms;They ask why do we need to know this – so we need to embed the math in contexts.
4So we’re clear on why this is so critical Economic security and social well-being Innovation and productivityHuman capital and equity of opportunityHigh quality education(literacy, MATH, science)Daily classroom math instruction
5My message today is simple: We know what works My message today is simple: We know what works. We know how to make math more accessible to our students It’s instruction silly!Active classesQuestioning classesThinking classesK-1ReadingGifted
6It’s instruction, silly! Research, classroom observations and common sense provide a great deal of guidance about instructional practices that make significant differences in student achievement. These practices can be found in high-performing classrooms and schools at all levels and all across the country. Effective teachers make the question “Why?” a classroom mantra to support a culture of reasoning and justification. Teachers incorporate daily, cumulative review of skills and concepts into instruction. Lessons are deliberately planned and skillfully employ alternative approaches and multiple representations—including pictures and concrete materials—as part of explanations and answers. Teachers rely on relevant contexts to engage their students’ interest and use questions to stimulate thinking and to create language-rich mathematics classrooms.
8Number from 1 to 61. What is 6 x 7?2. What number is 1000 less than 18,294?3. About how much is 32¢ and 29¢?4. What is 1/10 of 450?5. Draw a picture of 1 2/36. About how much do I weight in kg?
9Incorporate on-going cumulative review into instruction every day. Strategy #1Incorporate on-going cumulative review into instruction every day.
10Implementing Strategy #1 Almost no one masters something new after one or two lessons and one or two homework assignments. That is why one of the most effective strategies for fostering mastery and retention of critical skills is daily, cumulative review at the beginning of every lesson.
11On the way to school: A fact of the day A term of the day A picture of the dayAn estimate of the dayA skill of the dayA measurement of the dayA word problem of the day
12A thought on time (those tricky first 5 minutes) 5 minutes x 180 days = 900 minutes900 minutes ÷ 60 = 15 hours15 hours – ½ of a college course15 hours – one/hour week of tutoring for a semesterThat’s a lot of time!
13Or in 2nd grade: How much bigger is 9 than 5? What number is the same as 5 tens and 7 ones?What number is 10 less than 83?Draw a four-sided figure and all of its diagonals.About how long is this pen in centimeters?
14Good morning Boys and Girls Number from 1 to 5 1. What is the value of tan (π/4)?2. Sketch the graph of (x-3)2 + (y+2)2 = 163. What are the equations of the asymptotes of f(x) = (x-3)/(x-2)?4. If log2x = -4, what is the value of x?5. About how much do I weight in kg?
15Consider how we teach reading: JANE WENT TO THE STORE. Who went to the store?Where did Jane go?Why do you think Jane went to the store?Do you think it made sense for Jane to go to the store?
16Now consider mathematics: TAKE OUT YOUR HOMEWORK. #1 19## (No why? No how do you know? No who has a different answer?)
17Adapt from what we know about reading Strategy #2Adapt from what we know about reading(incorporate literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension to develop stronger neural connections)
21Create a language rich classroom. Strategy #3Create a language rich classroom.(Vocabulary, terms, answers, explanations)
22Implementing Strategy #3 Like all languages, mathematics must be encountered orally and in writing. Like all vocabulary, mathematical terms must be used again and again in context and linked to more familiar words until they become internalized.Area = covering Quotient = sharingPerimeter = border Mg = grain of sandCos = bucket Cubic = SCircumference = a belt Surface area = skinTan = sin/cos = y/x for all points on the unit circle
23Ready, set, picture….. “three quarters” Picture it a different way.
24Why does this make a difference Why does this make a difference? Consider the different ways of thinking about the same mathematics:2 ½ + 1 ¾$ $1.752 ½” + 1 ¾”
25Ready, set, show me…. “about 20 cms” How do you know?
26Ready, set, picture….. y = sin x y = 2 sin x y = sin (2x)
28Implementing Strategy #4 Show me with your hands about 8 inchesUse your fingers to show me about 10 sq.in.Draw three different pictures of 2 ½Picture Describe your picture
29The power of models and representations Siti packs her clothes into a suitcase and it weighs 29 kg.Rahim packs his clothes into an identical suitcase and it weighs 11 kg.Siti’s clothes are three times as heavy as Rahims.What is the mass of Rahim’s clothes?What is the mass of the suitcase?
30The old (only) way: Let S = the weight of Siti’s clothes Let R = the weight of Rahim’s clothesLet X = the weight of the suitcaseS = 3R S + X = R + X = 11so by substitution: 3R + X = 29and by subtraction: 2R = 18so R = 9 and X = 2
32You choose:1.59 ) 10vs.You have $10. Big Macs cost $1.59SO?
33You choose….The one right way to get the one right answer that no one cares about and isn’t even asked on the state testsvs.Where am I? (the McDonalds context)Ten? Convince me.About how many? How do you know?Exactly how many? How do you know?Oops – On sale for $1.29 and I have $20.
34You choose: Given: F = 4 (S – 65) + 10 Find F when S = 81. Vs. The speeding fine in Vermont is $4 for every mile per hour over the 65 mph limit plus $10 handling fee.
35You choose: Solve for x: 16 (.75)x < 1 vs. You ingest 16 mg of a controlled substance at 8 a.m. If your body metabolizes 25% of the substance each hour, could you pass a drug test at 4 p.m. if the legal limit is 1 mg?
37Embed the mathematics in contexts; Strategy #5Embed the mathematics in contexts;Present the mathematics as problem situations.
38Implementing Strategy #5 Here’s the math I need to teach.When and where do normal human beings encounter this math?
39Last and most powerfully: Make “why?”“how do you know?”“convince me”“explain that please”your classroom mantras
40Putting it all together one way Good morning class.Today’s objective: Find the surface area of right circular cylinders.Open to page3Example 1: S.A.= 2πrh + 2 πr24Find the surface area.Page odd
41Putting it all together another way Overheard in the ER as the sirens blare:“Oh my, look at this next one. He’s completely burned from head to toe.”“Not a problem, just order up 1000 square inches of skin from the graft bank.”You have two possible responses:Oh good – that will be enough.OROh god – we’re in trouble.
42Which response, “oh good” or “oh god” is more appropriate? Explain your thinking.Assuming you are the patient, how much skin would you hope they ordered up?Show how you arrived at your answer and be prepared to defend it to the class.
43For copies: SLeinwand@air.org See also: “Accessible Math” by Heinemann To recapitulate:Incorporate on-going cumulative reviewParallel literal to inferential to evaluative comprehension used in reading3. Create a language-rich classroomDraw pictures/create mental imagesEmbed the math in contexts/problemsAnd always ask them “why?”For copies:See also: “Accessible Math” by Heinemann