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LIT 501 Book Club Kristy DiRabbo Meghan Garvey Shelby Grigg Mallory Mohr Lacey Moore.

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Presentation on theme: "LIT 501 Book Club Kristy DiRabbo Meghan Garvey Shelby Grigg Mallory Mohr Lacey Moore."— Presentation transcript:

1 LIT 501 Book Club Kristy DiRabbo Meghan Garvey Shelby Grigg Mallory Mohr Lacey Moore

2 Did you know? Autism is one of the most common developmental disorders (p. 2) It is 4 to 5 times more likely to occur in boys than girls (p. 2) 1 in 150 children in this country are on the Autism spectrum (p. 2) Two models: Medical and Social. The medical model states that individuals with autism have delayed or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas: 1)social interaction; 2)communication; and/or 3) restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. (p. 2) The social model recognizes that some people have severe struggles, challenges, and impairments due to their disability, but also understand that these same individuals may be more or as disabled by the barriers that exist in a society that do not take account of their needs and differences. (p. 3)

3 Common Characteristics Are… Movement differences Sensory differences Communication differences (me) Social differences Learning differences * Remember: No two students with Autism will look, behave, communicate, or learn in exactly the same way (p. 6)

4 Movement Differences Movement differences describe symptoms involving excessive and unusual movement and the lack of usual movement For children with autism, even the simplest tasks can be problematic Students with movement problems often struggle with literacy instruction, especially in classrooms with strict expectations for student behavior

5 Sensory Differences Differences and difficulties that occur in hearing, touching, smelling, sight, and taste I hear things that people cant hear. For example, I can be in one room of the house and hear what my mother is saying on the telephone even when she has the door shut. There are certain sounds that are painful to listen to like the microwave, the telephone ring, lawnmowers, the blender, babies crying, vacuum cleaners, and my moms VW van when it starts up

6 Communication Differences All individuals will differ Echolalia Difficulties knowing how to enter or exit a conversation Affect on literacy= great (may not be able to communicate their understandings)

7 Social Differences Often times, students with autism are not interested in social relationships But, sometimes they desire friendships, but find it difficult to maintain them Individuals with autism may not be able to read subtle social signals Even the most basic social situations can be challenging Other students may not understand their attempts at being social Students should be taught explicitly about the demands of several social situations to avoid anxiety and panic

8 Learning Differences Struggles with remembering and organizing information Information retrieval Staying focused Students tendency to perseverate on certain materials or activities in an unusual way

9 Guiding Principles Principles of literacy are that: All literacies are valuable All literacies are social All literacies are functional

10 Respect comes with love and understanding each kids abilities and the desire to teach so therefore teachers must have a desire to teach everyone. They must realize that their dreams are not ours. Ask us what we will need to be an independent person later in our life. Teach good skills in a respectful way. Conversations with me will tell you if Im happy. (Burke, 2005, p. 250) (p. 43) Think about it…

11 Principles for Promoting Inclusive Literacy Practices Maintain high expectations Provide models of literate behavior Elicit students perspectives Promote diversity as a positive resource Adopt elastic instructional approaches Use flexible grouping strategies Differentiate instruction

12 Maintain High Expectations Be systematic about asking reflective questions Take notes based on responses to help inform future instruction Set up goals for students to meet and brainstorm ways to do so Put clear expectations into practice (p. 45-47)

13 Provide Models of Literate Behavior The teacher should talk with students extensively about what, how and for what purposes you read and write.

14 Elicit Students Perspectives Be aware of the big disconnect Try to collect information about every learner, rather than over generalizing Figure out ways to incorporate thumbs up/down and initials Listen, carry out conferences Know your students as individuals

15 Promote Diversity as a Positive Resource A wider range of literacy skills and strategies developed in home and community contexts to adopt and adapt for academic tasks A wider range of background experience for the group to call of when reading and responding to literature Increased opportunities for students to serve as tutors and develop a greater awareness of what they now and can do well as literacy learners. A greater awareness of differences that exist in the world beyond school, where people are rarely sorted and segregated from each other on the basis of narrow bands of ability.

16 Adopt Elastic Instructional Approaches

17 Use Flexible Grouping Strategies Students are put in temporary groupings based on students varying instructional needs as a way for teachers to support individuals continuous growth and development

18 Differentiate Instruction Classroom Climate and Environment Teaching Strategies Goals and Standards Materials Lesson Formats

19 Formal Assessments Definition: approaches to assessing literacy that involve standardized administration and standardized norms for interpreting results It is believed that these sorts of measures do more harm than good for most learners on the autism spectrum

20 Informal Assessments Observation Conferences and Interviews Analysis of Student Work Samples Presentations and Performances (me) IEP Checklists Portfolios

21 Presentations and Performances Help with application and synthesis of learned information from reading, writing, and listening Exhibitions Allows the chance to act increasing self-confidence; consider your students comfort levels

22 Instructional Approaches to Teach P.A, Phonics, and Word Recognition Rhythm and Movement Tactile Letter Recognition Alphabet Books Word and Letter Sorts Sight Word Recognition Plus

23 Rhythm and Movement Including physical movement with sound may be useful for all students Clapping out syllables Say-It-and-Move-It Poems, chants, and songs

24 Tactile Letter Recognition Students with autism may experience print differently, they often pay too much attention to features of print, this approach will help them tell one letter from another Teachers allow their students to feel letters cut from sandpaper, or drawn with shaving cream, or form the letters themselves with clay.

25 Alphabet Books Assist in letter recognition and early phonics connections Create your own

26 Sight Word Recognition Plus Report special strengths and visual learning Introduce to personalized sets of flash cards with words tied to their families, interests, and experiences Levels 1-3 –Level 1: Matching word card to some word on grid –Level 2: Selecting a word on request –Level 3: Saying or signing the word

27 Instructional Approaches for Reading Fluency Read Alouds Collaborative Oral Reading Repeated Reading Readers Theater

28 Read Alouds

29 Repeated Reading In Repeated Reading, first the learner reads a designated passage along with a teacher, parent, or more competent peer to ensure comprehension Next, the learner is asked to read the passage in the same length of time it would take a fluent reader to do so at a moderate pace (usually between 200 and 350 words/minute) The student then reads the passage as many times as is necessary to achieve that goal, timing him or herself with a stopwatch and recording how long it takes for each reading (Some versions also require students to keep track of their errors) Repeated reading activities may appeal to some students with autism because clear targets are set, for example, The student will read a 100-word passage in 40 seconds. However, some might not understand how rereading something can be beneficial, or may become to hung up on their immediate goals for a passage rather than the bigger picture of developing fluency So, teachers should vary activities in which repeated reading can be used

30 Readers Theater (RT) Five steps Choose a script Adapt the script Assign parts Highlights parts and rehearse (Bulk of fluency practice here) Perform Dont be afraid to integrate assistive technology (i.e: Step by Step Communicator)

31 Instructional Approaches for Reading Comprehension Boosting Background Knowledge Think Alouds Reciprocal Teaching Retellings

32 Instructional Approaches for Vocabulary Knowledge Fascination-focused Books Word Walls Vocabulary Squares Semantic Mapping

33 Word Walls Ongoing display Inspiration for vocabulary games (i.e: BINGO) Create portable versions or personal versions

34 Vocabulary Squares

35 Semantic Mapping Students create a graphic organizer, such as a web, to show relationships between a main concept and related words Useful for students with autism because it can capitalize on visual strengths by linking graphics and meanings And, helps students separate main ideas from smaller details Kidspiration -Started -Started

36 Instructional Approaches for Developing Writing Fluency Language Experience Approach Scribing Silent Discussions Differentiating Materials Writing here, there, everywhere

37 Language Experience Approach (LEA) Six steps Collaborative and values student input Digital LEA may be even more beneficial

38 Differentiating Materials One way to encourage fluency is to use a wide range of materials and provide choice in how the learner will complete writing tasks Implements Surfaces Related Tools Pencils Paper Magazines Markers Computer Screen Glue Sticks Stamps Chalkboard Stickers Chalk Sidewalk Etch a Sketch Paintbrushes Paper plates Post it notes

39 Writing here, there, everywhere This approach assists with students writing and also communication, in general Students may be asked to write notes to friends, requests to teachers, or emails to pen pals The purpose should be clear, the time commitment should be manageable, and the experience should be fun

40 Instructional Approaches for Planning and Organizing Texts Speak and Write Framed Paragraphs Graphic Organizers Story Kits Color-coded Notes

41 Speak and Write Involves listening to students conversations or engaging in conversation with learners and suggesting which pieces of the discussion might be starting points for an essay, story, or other written products

42 Framed Paragraphs This weekend I went to: ___ mall ___ toy store ___ Grandparents ___ the lake…

43 Graphic Organizers Useful for students with autism (as well as students without disabilities) because they can express abstract ideas, store and recall information, find relationships between concepts, and organize ideas Must be modeled!!!! Might assist students in meeting their goals and IEP objectives

44 Story Kits May contain: books, videos, puppets, flannel boards, songs, finger plays etc. Used to introduce, enrich, and review different stories Help Autistic students understand abstract concepts Great for giving students clues about what they should add to their writing Great example: Island of the Blue Dolphins

45 Color-coded Notes Inclusion of visual cues Makes relationships more salient Six steps or ways to think about incorporation Use this with something of interest

46 Autism isnt something a person has, or a shell that a person is trapped inside. Theres no normal child hidden behind autism. Autism is a way of being. It is pervasive: it colors every experience, every sensation, perception, thought, emotion, and encounter, every aspect of existence. It is not possible to separate the autism from the person- and if it were possible, the person youd have left would not be the same person you started with. (p. 5).

47 I was the last person in my fourth grade to get the penmanship award. This was a big deal to the children because when the penmanship was good enough, the teacher designated you as scribe and you were given a set of colored pencils. I didnt care so much about the title, but I coveted the colored pencils. I tried very hard and still I was last to qualify… Leaning math was even more difficult because I had a British teacher, Mr. Brown. He was a very proper Englishman and made the class do the math problems with a fountain pen. We had to rule the plus and minus signs and be ever so neat. It was bad enough trying to understand math but having to be neat besides was impossible. No matter how hard I tried, my papers were splattered with ink. (p. 8).

48 I think in pictures. Words are like a second language to me. I translate both spoken and written words into full-color movies, complete with sound, which run like a VCR tape in my head. When somebody speaks to me, his words are instantly translated into pictures… I value my ability to think visually and I would never want to lose that. (p. 10)

49 I sometimes know in my head what words are but they do not always come out. Sometimes when I really need to speak and I just cannot, the frustration is terrible… I usually end up giving up in despair, and terrible it feels too. When I get like this, no amount of trying to do anything about it makes a difference. (p. 14).

50 You see my mind is very active and thoughts jump around like popcorn being popped. I have very interesting thoughts. Its just that they keep firing off so fast that its hard to stop them unless someone helps to focus my attention on something. You can imagine how hard it is to get anything done with a roller coaster mind without any clear destination (p. 21)

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