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Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. How can we conserve biodiversity? - Institutions - The Futurability of.

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1 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. How can we conserve biodiversity? - Institutions - The Futurability of Biodiversity Chapter 9 How can we conserve biodiversity? - Institutions - I want a larger field… I want to export timber and make a profit. Dont log! I am looking for materials to make new medicines. The forest gives us various foods.

2 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. In Review The conservation of biodiversity should be precautionary and follow the adaptive management system. Establishment of protected areas is effective for conserving indigenous species and rare ecosystems.

3 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Todays Topics – Focusing on Southeast Asian tropical rainforests 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 2. Conventional institutions 3. Actions for improving institutions How we can characterize the conventional institutions in terms of biodiversity conservation? What are the problems that the conventional social systems face in trying to conserve biodiversity? How we can establish institutions that effectively conserve biodiversity?

4 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity How we can characterize the conventional institutions in terms of biodiversity conservation? 1) What are conservation institutions? 2) Points to keep in mind 3) Three levels in institutions International treaties/agreements, Domestic laws, Customary rules

5 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Timber theft Poaching Development Rules (laws, etc.) Rangers Nature conservation groups Effective institutions = mechanisms which adjust conflicting interests 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 1) What is an institution? Institutions Walls which protect nature from its destroyers Photo: (left) Toyooka city, Hyogo prefecture (middle and right) Echigo-Matsunoyama Museum of Natural Science, Kyororo

6 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. I want to eat mushrooms. I want a larger field… I want to export timber and make a profit. Dont log! I am looking for materials to make new medicines. The forest give us various foods. Not everyone can obtain sufficient benefits. …Institutions which meet conflicting interests are needed. 1. Diverse services of biodiversity produce varied interests. 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 2) Points to keep in mind

7 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 2) Points to keep in mind a) Makes a distinction between lands used for production (farmlands, cutovers, etc.) and those that are conserved (protected areas). The role of social systems is to limit their utilization to the extent that sustainable use is guaranteed. What is important … Who may utilize the land or resources and how Who should manage the land or resources and how What is a rule which adjusts conflicting interests? b) Restricts the amount or kinds of resources which may be utilized (tree species or numbers which may be logged, wild animal species which are permitted to be hunted, etc.).

8 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. - High biodiversity - Non-rainforest countries (Japan, India, Taiwan, Korea, China, EU, etc.) greatly affect the unsustainable use of tropical rainforests (by importing tropical timber, palm oil, etc.). …Institutions to regulate human activities are needed. …Institutions to maintain human activities. 2. Institutions needed differ according to the characteristics of the ecosystem to be conserved. 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 2) Points to keep in mind On an international level, one of the most important interests is in conserving tropical rainforests. In some ecosystems, however, high biodiversity is kept just by human activities. - Prime example is satoyama.

9 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Domestic laws 1. International treaties/agreements Country enters into a treaty by its own will, and has a duty to follow the rules. 3. Customary rules Public rules which are decided by a country Agreements by local communities which have traditional and cultural backgrounds Institutions = rules + implementation Three levels of the rules 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 3) Three levels of institutions

10 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. International treaties/agreements Circumstances Contents Organization (See Chapter 1) Adopted at UNCED in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 150 countries have signed at present. Overview of conservation and utilization of biodiversity - sustainability and fair balance Cooperation between developed and developing countries - developed countries: techniques and funds - developing countries: permission for dealing with genetic resources Secretariat, COP, SBSTTA, various working committees …detailed discussions are progressing. E.g., 1) The Convention on Biological Diversity 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 3) Three levels of institutions

11 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. International treaties/agreements E.g., 2) Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 3) Three levels of institutions Landscape of Khao Yai National Park Landscape of Great Barrier Reef Photo: (left) Shumpei Kitamura (right) Yasunori Maezono

12 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 3) Three levels of institutions Two purposes: conservation and sightseeing; consideration of carrying capacities. In many countries, residence and/or human activities for making a living is forbidden within NP. 2. Domestic laws National Park system Various other protected areas E.g., protection by establishment of National Parks (NP) or other protected areas Giving conservation priority over utilization, such as sightseeing

13 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 3) Three levels of institutions Common resources in a community (forests, grasslands, ponds, etc.) Iriai is a strong self-government of communities independent of public authority, and able to ensure sustainable use of natural resources. Such systems are rarely found in other countries. 3. Customary rules E.g., iriai in Japanese local communities …Natural resources in a local community are the property of all people of the community. Maintained by customary rules for traditional managements and utilization (e.g., all people cut weeds covering the forest floor, taking firewood by turns, monitoring common resources, etc.) People who break the customary rules are ostracized.

14 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Summary 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity Institutions are mechanisms which adjust various conflicting interests. When institutions for the conservation of biodiversity are established, we should consider: 1) Interests regarding biodiversity vary according to ecosystem services. 2) Effective institutions also vary according to the characteristics of the ecosystem to be conserved. Institutions are divided into three levels: international, national and local community levels.

15 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. What are the problems that conventional social systems have trying to conserve biodiversity? 1) The alienation between human and natural environments 2) Relationships between government and local people 2. Conventional institutions

16 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Tropical rainforest managements by governments cause the alienation between human and natural environments. 2. Conventional institutions 1) The alienation between human and natural environments Untouched nature is to be strictly conserved as NP or the other protected area. Modernization and development is progressing outside NPs, where local people live. Developing countries in Southeast Asia

17 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Conventional institutions 1) The alienation between human and natural environments Developed countries Modernization and urban development reduce opportunities for human contact with nature. Landscape of Kyoto city

18 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 2. Conventional institutions 1) The alienation between human and natural environments Changes in the relationships between humans and nature Various medicinal herbs - Disappearance of traditional knowledge (medicinal herbs, edible or poisonous mushrooms, etc.) Developing countries - Separation of humans from nature by forest managements and developments Developed countries - Segregation of human life from nature because of modernization and urban development

19 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Relationships between governments and local people in Southeast Asian countries 2. Conventional institutions 2) Relationships between government and local people Sarawak, Malaysia In the demesne which indigenous people have cultivated since before 1958, Native Customary Rights are legally recognized. However, some debate remains about its boundary and interpretation. Indonesia Customary title to an estate had not been respected under the Suharto government. After the collapse of that government in 1998, laws were revised and customary title to an estate came to be recognized. However, local people sometimes demand the right to use the land where such uses are not permitted. Thailand Laws establishing national forests were enacted in 1964, and local people were legally excluded from the national forests. However, the laws do not actually function well.

20 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Previous social systems have brought about the separation of humans from their natural environments - the most serious problem. In Southeast Asia, human activities are inhibited in NP or protected areas and massive developments have been progressing on the outside, so local people have lost their familiar forests. In developed countries, modernization has changed the relationships between humans and nature, and opportunities for contact with nature have been decreasing. Summary 2. Conventional institutions

21 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. How we can establish institutions that effectively conserve biodiversity? 1) Community-based management (CBM) 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity 3) Flexible managements of protected areas 3. Actions for improving institutions

22 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 3. Actions for improving institutions 1) CBM Background of proposing CBM Developing sustainable use of natural resources …Ecotourism, practical use of traditional knowledge, one- village one-specialty, etc. Who has the right to utilize forest resources? …Local people should receive more benefits. Consideration of profits & their division among local people Local people who were plunderers of natural resources become their protectors.

23 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Mushroom gathering in Northeast Thailand …Mushrooms provide precious cash incomes for local people, and are examples of sustainable use of non-timber forest products. 3. Actions for improving institutions 1) CBM

24 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 3. Actions for improving institutions 1) CBM Problems difficult to solve 2. Adjustment of interests with other organizations These problems concern not only local communities but also interrelationships of actors from the local community level to the national level. 1. Organization of local people - Is their right to speak protected? - Is the division of profits among them fair? - Have these people secured sustainable use of natural resources?

25 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Local people, NGOs and government officials assembled in one hall, and organized a working group for setting the limits of a community forest. 3. Actions for improving institutions 1) CBM

26 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Permits and licenses / instruction The eyes of international society Observation / criticism Discussion / rejection NGOs & Citizens Support of campaigns Demand for aboriginal rights Demand for cooperation Use fees Sales of forest products / protest Employment & financial support / infringement of aboriginal rights Companies Local people Social structures of CBM 3. Actions for improving institutions 1) CBM Government & forest department

27 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 3. Actions for improving institutions 1) CBM IndonesiaDecentralization and CBM Since the collapse of the Suharto government, CBM has been rapidly spreading with decentralization. Logging traders, governmental officers, NGOs and local people held a forum. However, overuse of timber by local people has become a problem. Thailand For the proposal in principle, but against particular details Since the orders forbidding logging were issued in 1989, community forests have spread all over the country. The Community Forest Bill was passed in November, 2007. …In both countries, NGOs, experts and forest agencies support local people. Sarawak, Malaysia The state government fully controls the forests. Part of the profits from logging is divided among local people.

28 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Forest department and local people planting trees together to create community forest. (Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand) 3. Actions for improving institutions 1) CBM

29 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Outside protected areas… Logging methods which minimize the influence on the ecosystem, while considering the local community Forest certification system …Essential for conserving biodiversity of tropical rainforests. For utilizing biological resources without damage to biodiversity… 3. Actions for improving institutions 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity In protected areas… Sightseeing attractions and genetic resources Ecotourism: utilization of protected areas, considering their carrying capacities Genetic resources: adjustment of interests between developed and developing countries.

30 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. E.g., paper with FSC logo The price is slightly higher than usual. A third-party institution examines sustainability of forest products. … Consumers can get information and choose products. Distinction of sustainably-managed forest products: forest certification system 3. Actions for improving institutions 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity I want to buy ecologically friendly products even if they are a little expensive.

31 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 3. Actions for improving institutions 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) - Biggest certification authority of forest products - Non-profit organization independent of national government or international agencies - Consists of various interested parties; decides policies after consultation - Establishes standards for designation according to the situation of each country, based on 10 principles (e.g., minimizing influence on ecosystem, protecting rights of indigenous people and profits of local communities, upholding the rights of laborers, and meticulously managing plans while monitoring their implementation) Two kinds of certification - Certification of forest management and chain of custody … Products which receive certification are permitted to display FSC logo.

32 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 3. Actions for improving institutions 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity Protected forest in Deramakot, Sabah, Malaysia Certification of attestation from FSC Timbers are carried overhead by an aerial system which minimizes damage to soil and living trees.

33 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Problems of Forest Certification System The market price of timber is not high enough to cover the cost. 3. Actions for improving institutions 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity 1. High cost Cost for certification Cost of reduced impact logging Companys losses from ban on monopolistic logging 2. All costs cannot be recovered.

34 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 3. Actions for improving institutions 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity http://www.rspo.org/ Distinction of sustainably-managed palm oil: Roundtable on sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO, founded in 2004) - RSPO promotes the growth and use of sustainable oil palm products through credible global standards and engagement of stakeholders. - Certified palm oil (28 companies, 49 facilities) 1.56 million tons, 0.3 million ha (as of Mar. 2010) Malaysia 48%, Papua 29%, Indonesia 23%

35 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 3. Actions for improving institutions 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity Under discussion - Prohibit replacement of primary forest or HCVF (High Conservation Value Forests) after Nov. 2005 - Customary rights of local communities - Pollution from mills http://www.rspo.org/ RSPO - Non-profit organization consisting of 7 stakeholders. - Stakeholders are oil palm producers, palm oil processors or traders, consumer goods manufacturers, retailers, banks and investors, environmental or nature conservation NGOs and social or developmental NGOs. - 8 principles, 39 criteria,130 indicators (e.g., environmental responsibility and conservation of natural resources and biodiversity, responsible consideration for employees and for individuals and communities affected by growers and mills, responsible development of new plantings)

36 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Protected area is divided into three areas according to the intensity of human utilization. Buffer area Transition area (Human activities permitted to some extent.) (UNESCOs Man and the Biosphere Program) 3. Actions for improving institutions 3) Flexible management of protected areas Core area (No human activities permitted.) Out of protected area Design of protected areas – Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB)

37 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Ia. Strict Nature Reserve Ib. Wilderness Area II. National Park III. Natural Monument IV. Habitat/Species Management Area V. Protected Landscape/Seascape VI. Managed Resource Protected Area Management of protected areas World Commission of Protected Areas (WCPA) Local people are permitted to live in these protected areas unless they impede the above purposes. 3. Actions for improving institutions 3) Flexible management of protected areas Protected areas are categorized into seven types by IUCN according to their purposes and intensities of human activities (See column). http://cms.iucn.org/about/union/commissions/wcpa/index.cfm

38 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. 3. Actions for improving institutions 3) Flexible management of protected areas Forest of Shirakami, Japan, which is categorized as Ib

39 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Column: Purposes of Protected Areas (IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas 1994) IaIbIIIIIIVVVI Scientific research1322223 Wilderness protection21233-2 Biodiversity conservation1211121 Ecosystem protection211-121 Conservation of specific natural and cultural features --21313 Recreation-211313 Education--22223 Sustainable use of natural ecosystem --3-221 Conservation of cultural and traditional features -----12 Management purpose of each protected area 1: first purpose 2: second purpose 3: third purpose

40 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Summary 3. Actions for improving institutions If the right of utilization of natural resources is given to local people, they often stop plundering them and come to conserve and manage those resources. It is possible for conservation and utilization of biodiversity to coexist if we sustainably utilize natural resources. For that purpose, we need systems such as Forest Certification System or RSPO, in which consumers can recognize whether or not a manufactured good has been produced in consideration of biodiversity conservation. Design or managements of protected areas are also planned in consideration of local people.

41 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Summary of Todays Topics 1. Relationships among international society, countries, various civic organizations, NGOs and local people are highly intricate. For conservation of biodiversity, adjustment of their conflicting interests is essential. 2. In the past, the profits of biodiversity usually belonged to countries. Nowadays, however, national governments come to consider the sustainable use of biodiversity not only for national profits but also for utilization by local people. 3. For conservation of biodiversity, social systems which enable people to adjust their interests and construct relationships of trust are essential. How can we conserve biodiversity? - Institutions -

42 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Exercises Lets do the exercises below: 1. In a village, suppose illegal logging is common. If you are an officer of the forest department, which of the following three measures would you choose? Explain your reasons. a) Increase the number of guards to arrest a person illegally logging and punish him severely. b) Give a subsidy to the village on the condition that villagers will stop illegal logging. c) Make villagers discuss the forest, and manage and utilize it as the common property of their village.

43 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Exercises Lets do the exercises below: 2. What kind of interests do people in developed countries have in tropical rainforests?

44 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Glossary (1/2) The limits of human activities which an environment can sustain without any damage Carrying capacity Matter or factor which motivates or encourages someone to do (or stop doing) something. See Chapter 10 in detail.Incentive Acronym for non-governmental organization. NGOs are expected in a society to supplement what governmental measures cannot provide, and to play a watchdog role in relation to government and business.NGO Forest which local people jointly manage and utilize. There are two types: those which local people have customarily managed, and those which governments entrust local people to manage. Community forest

45 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Glossary (2/2) Methods of logging which minimize damage to an ecosystem. See Chapter 8 in detail. Reduced impact logging Sites considered by UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to be worth preserving as treasures that belong to all human beings. There are four categories: Cultural Heritage, Natural Heritage, Compound Heritage and Crisis Heritage. World Heritage Government of Indonesia from 1968 to 1998. It had strong backing from the army and achieved economic development, but also brought official corruption. The Suharto government

46 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. References (1/2) IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas (1994) Guideline for Protected Area Management Categories. Peluso, N. L. (1992) Rich Forests, Poor People: Resource Control and Resistance in Java. University of California Press. Stevens, S. (ed.) (1997) Conservation through Cultural Survival. Island Press. Sayer, J. (1991) Rainforest Buffer Zones: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers. International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Colfer, C. J. P. and Ida, A. P. R. (eds.) (2002) Which Way Forward?: People, Forests, and Policymaking in Indonesia. Resources for the Future. Fujita, W. (2004) Creating Community Forests: Comparative Analysis of Socio-political Structure in Thailand and Indonesia. (Paper presented at the 3rd Asian Public Intellectuals Workshop) IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas (1994) Guideline for Protected Area Management Categories. Peluso, N. L. (1992) Rich Forests, Poor People: Resource Control and Resistance in Java. University of California Press. Stevens, S. (ed.) (1997) Conservation through Cultural Survival. Island Press. Sayer, J. (1991) Rainforest Buffer Zones: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers. International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Colfer, C. J. P. and Ida, A. P. R. (eds.) (2002) Which Way Forward?: People, Forests, and Policymaking in Indonesia. Resources for the Future. Fujita, W. (2004) Creating Community Forests: Comparative Analysis of Socio-political Structure in Thailand and Indonesia. (Paper presented at the 3rd Asian Public Intellectuals Workshop)

47 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. References (2/2) Fujita, W. (2006) Will contradiction be solved? – Expansion of measures to conserve forest. Asian Study 52. (In Japanese) Fujita, W. (2006) Will contradiction be solved? – Expansion of measures to conserve forest. Asian Study 52. (In Japanese)

48 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Cited Websites Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil http://www.rspo.org/ World Commission on Protected Areas http://cms.iucn.org/about/union/commissions/wcpa/index.cfm Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil http://www.rspo.org/ World Commission on Protected Areas http://cms.iucn.org/about/union/commissions/wcpa/index.cfm

49 Copyright 2010 Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. All Rights Reserved. Authors & Credits The Futurability of Biodiversity Chapter 9 How can we conserve biodiversity? - Institutions - Authors Application softwareMicrosoft PowerPoint ® Illustration & designBe4°TECH Koubou Yecoruka Photos Wataru Fujita Masahiro Ichikawa Daisuke Naito Kentaro Kanazawa Aya Hatada Stewart Wachs Martin Piddington Aya Hatada Biodiversity Photos Echigo-Matsunoyama Museum of Natural Science, Kyororo Hiromitsu Samejima Shoko Sakai Shumpei Kitamura Takakazu Yumoto Tohru Nakashizuka Toyooka city, Hyogo prefecture Wataru Fujita Yasunori Maezono


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