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1 Philosophy of the Natural Sciences Kuipers + Atkinson, Nieuwpoort, van Delden www.rug.nl/filosofie/finat Obligatory Litterature General Theo Kuipers,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Philosophy of the Natural Sciences Kuipers + Atkinson, Nieuwpoort, van Delden www.rug.nl/filosofie/finat Obligatory Litterature General Theo Kuipers,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Philosophy of the Natural Sciences Kuipers + Atkinson, Nieuwpoort, van Delden Obligatory Litterature General Theo Kuipers, Structures in Scientific Cognition (SSC) Specific Reader relativiteitstheorie, molecuultheorie en evolutietheorie One at choice: Lawrence Sklar, Philosophy of Physics, Oxford UP, Jaap van Brakel, Philosophy of Chemistry, Leuven UP, 2000 Elliott Sober, Philosophy of Biology, Westview Press,

2 2 Recommended Litterature - General: --Theo Kuipers, Structures in Science. Heuristic Patterns based on Cognitive Structures, Synthese Library, Vol. 301, Kluwer AP, Dordrecht, Merrilee Salmon et al., Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, Hacket Publishing Cy, Indianapolis/Cambridge, (1992) 1999 (reprint) -- Specific: see:

3 3 Schedule Nov. 11Kstructures 1 SSC: S. 1/2/10/12 Nov. 18Atkinson: relativityReader, part 1 Nov. 25Kstructures 2SSC: S. 1/2/10/12 Dec. 2Kexplanations 1SSC: S. 3/4/5/6 Dec. 9NieuwpoortmoleculesReader, part 2 Dec. 16Kexplanations 2SSC: S. 3/4/5/6 Jan. 6Kmethods 1SSC: S. 7/8/9/11/13 Jan. 13van DeldenevolutionReader, part 3 Jan. 20Kmethods 2SSC: S. 7/8/9/11/13 Jan. 27 examination

4 4 Examination January 27, 2004: /19.00? Resit: tba

5 5 Possible parallels/continuations 2003/4 (Q1/2/3: first/second/third quarter; EC: Europian Creditpoint; BC/MC: Bachelor / Master Course) Romeyn: Analytische Wetenschapsfilosofie (Q4, 2.5EC, BC2) Kuipers: Generalisten lezen met een wetenschapsfilosofische bril (Q2, 5EC, BC3) Keijzer&Tamminga: Philosophy of neuroscience (Q2; 5 EC; MC) Kuipers & Romeyn: How to approach the truth (Q3; 5 EC; MC) Other options: J. Hilgevoord: Over de ruimte (StGen.10/11-1/12)

6 6 Possible continuations 2004/5 The same + Tamminga & Dooremalen: Cognitive Structures with emphasis on mind/body research (Q1, 5EC, BC2/3) Kuipers et al.: Filosofie van de sociale wetenschappen (Q?, 5EC, BC3) Kooi: Computational Philosophy (of Science) (Q?, 5EC, MC) D’Agostino: Reason ……...(Q2, 5EC, BC/MC)

7 7 L1: Introduction + Structures in researchprograms, theories and laws (1) Introduction Philosophy of Science (PoS): some general questions (SSC: Introduction, 3-5) –what are scientific theories? –what is a scientific explanation? –are scientific claims justifiable or falsifiable? how do scientific theories change? how are old and new theories related? how are theories of different fields related?

8 8 PoS as part of “science of science” = cognitive + social studies of science philosophy of science => cognitive structures –structure of products: laws, theories, r. programs –structure of reasoning processes: explanations –structure of validity relations: methods => computational philosophy of science history of science sociology of science psychology of science

9 9 PoS as part of Philosophy other relevant subdisciplines –logic –metaphysics (e.g. ontology) –epistemology –value theory (e.g. ethics, aesthetics) –social philosophy (e.g. social epistemology) many views and disputes analytic tradition

10 10 Use-values PoS-cognitive structures ‘null hypothesis’ of ideal courses of events solving classical philosophical problems didactic instruments for textbooks heuristic role in research&science policy heuristic role in actual research –cognitive structures as heuristic patterns = schematic anticipations

11 11 20th century history PoS Logical Positivism / Empiricism: Wiener Kreis (Carnap c.s) + Berliner Gruppe (Reichenbach c.s) Hempel, Nagel – L ogical: Frege, Russell – P ositivism: Comte; E mpiricism: Hume –CoD vs CoJ : C ontext of D iscovery vs J ustification –logical reconstruction of CoJ Critical Rationalism: Popper Descriptive/Historical turn: Kuhn/Lakatos etc.

12 12 Post-merely-normative PoS From (merely) normative to (also) descriptive/historical Kuhn: paradigms (normal vs revolutionary science) Feyerabend: ‘anything goes’ (cf. one method) Lakatos: research programs Laudan: research traditions Context of Discovery (CoD-)studies Alternatives or concretizations?

13 13 Research programs and strategies SSC, S1 (5-9), App. 1A-1C (47-51) Research programs (RP’s) –4 ideal types: descriptive/explanatory/design/explicative –atomic theory: structure and development Research strategies –idealization and concretization –interaction: competition/coöperation –interdisciplinary research

14 14 Examples Descriptive RP’s –thermostatics –periodic table –human genome project Explanatory RP’s –statistical mechanics –atomic theory –genetic theory Design RP’s –nuclear fusion –new materials –genetic modification Explicative RP’s –causal explanation –reductive explanation –functional explanation

15 15 Similarities and differences PM: Ideal types –descriptive / explanatory / design / explicative Similarities and differences –all have an internal goal –directly vs indirectly characterized –some or no degrees of freedom

16 16 Development Phases, with corresponding success criteria –internal phase heuristic and evaluative subphase –external phase, directed at science external goal or some other program Core theory + specific theories Revisions of (specific) theories Research traditions (Laudan)

17 17 Summary research tradition research-RP1RP2RP3RP*DesignRP programs core theoryCT2 specific T2.1.1 T2.2.1T2.3.1T2.4.1T2.5.1 theories revisions T2.1.2T2.3.2T phases internal external

18 18 Dogmatic behavior Kuhn/Lakatos: SSC, App. 8A (79-81) Improvement principle (IP) Programmatic improvement principle (PIP) –aim at a better theory with the same hard core –if necessary, adapt the hard core –if no other option, look for another program (P)IP functional for empirical progress and truth approxination Types of dogmatic behavior: –scientific: if with PIP –pseudoscientific: if without PIP

19 19 Coöperation between programs asymmetric –guide and supply RP’s typical for successful interdisciplinary research –discipline boundary breaking symmetric –alternating distribution of roles –discipline boundary bridging

20 20 Specific strategies Interaction of holistic and reductionistic RP’s Strategies for program development –(semi-)dogmatic strategy –guided by idealization and concretization –guided by interesting theorems

21 21 Idealization & Concretization: paradigm Transition ideal gas law  to the Law of Van der Waals (0) P = RT/V (1) P = RT/V  a/V 2 (or, alternatively, P = RT/(V  b) ) (2) P = RT/(V  b)  a/V 2 (or the standard form: (P+a/V 2 )(V  b)=RT) ) P, V, T: pressure, volume, temperature R : ideal gas constant a and b: gas constants, resp. related to mutual attraction between the molecules and the volume of the molecules.

22 22 Observational laws and proper theories SSC: S2 (9-12) examples and characteristics theory-relative explication of ‘observational /theoretical’ (O/T-) distinctions theory ladenness of observation explication in terms of ‘empirical basis’ structure of proper theories epistemological positions

23 23 Structure & development of RP’s Authors: Kuhn, Lakatos, etc. Ex. Newton, Dalton, Mendel Structure: components –domain –problem/goal –idea: vocabulary + principles: hard core/ dogma’s –positive heuristics –model as positive heuristics

24 24 Research strategies Program bound research Program pluralism in education and in research Program interaction –competition –coöperation asymmetric or symmetric


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