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Article by Alexis A. Aronowitz – Presentation by Cindy Dehaen, July 2012.

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1 Article by Alexis A. Aronowitz – Presentation by Cindy Dehaen, July 2012

2  Defining the phenomenon: establishing coherent understanding  Magnitude of the problem,understanding the reasons for its existence, identifying the root causes, analysis of the markets  National and international programs & the importance of co- operation: strategies to fight smuggling and trafficking

3 Voluntary vs unvoluntary Amount of money paid by the victim upon arrival in the destination country Creating a debt bondage: most victims are women & children (used for sexual exploitation & forced labor) Traffickers escape from prosecution: deception & coercion The symbiotic relationship between illegal & conventional markets: use of sub-contracts => both profit of the use of smuggled or trafficked victims e.g.: textile industry, building industry, restaurants, factories, farms...

4 => Accurate statistics: difficult due to its clandistine nature => Estimate by the IOM: > 4 million a year => 5 factors indicating an increasing & expanding market:  # of people living in poverty willing to take the chance  lack in border control: corrupt government officials  world & economy globalisation  advanced technology & communication  growing organized crime The PUSH and PULL factors: the REAL CAUSES of LEGAL AND ILLEGAL immigration PUSH: Government corruption Infant mortality rate Proportion of youngsters Food production index Population density Social unrest PULL: Easy border control (suggesting government corruption) Infant mortality rate Male population over 60 Food production index Energy consumption

5 Legitimate economy Forced labor & ‘doubtfull’ markets Criminal industry and illicit sex industry While some (il)legal migrants immediately end up in the third market, some start working the domestic service economy or in restaurants, often in slave-like conditions Often includes deplorable working, living and sanitary conditions Wanting to escape from being mistreated, a lot of (il)legal migrants end up in the illicit sex industry

6 1. Small-scale activities by individual entrepreneurs (brothels) 2. Mid-level prostitution of clandestine operations importing and controlling women 3. Large-scale international criminal organisations linked with domestic criminal organisations, keeping women without documentation under tight control => PROFITS USUALLY REINVESTED IN THE LEGITIMATE ECONOMY THROUGH MONEY LAUNDERING


8 Specilized sub-units Organizations unit Management unit Investors Before transport RecrutersInformers Corrupt public officials.. During transport TransportersGuidesEnforcers…Upon arrival Debt- collectors... Evidence by EuropolEuropol: high degree of organization evolved from large entities to smaller horizontal structures to co-operate in the European Union Increased flexibility & decentralization allow a faster adaptation & re-organization in case of threats from law enforcement but also market competition & higher demand! Horizontal interpendency => diversification => expansion into other illicit markets & criminal activities: vehicle theft drug trafficking trafficking in arms money laundering Half of the sex-industry = in hands of non- nationals

9 1. Lack of legislation 2. Lack of political will => corruption 3. Lack of capacity: manpower & material 4. Lack of co-operation nationally & internationally 1. Prevention – Protection – Assistance: => awareness-raising campaigns in countries of origin & sensitization campaigns in transit/destination countries => assistance programs & effective laws => economic measures: strenghtening educational, training & job opportunities => training material for fieldworkers => a range of services for victims => better protection & more legal measures granted to NGO’s 2. Enforcement – Prosecution of Traffickers: => obligatory existance of legislation & enforcement: eradicating corruption => enforcing agencies: allow them to take disruptive measures => gathering & sharing of intelligence on national & international level

10 1. Exchange of information 2. Co-ordination & harmonization of national policies & laws 3. Bi-lateral or multi-lateral agreements 4. Repatriation & reintegration assistance 5. Extradition of criminals 6. Training of government officials 7. More severe penalties for trafficking => IF NOT: THE FLOW OF ILLEGAL TRAFFICKING IS SIMPLY DISPLACED (f.e. influx illegal Chinese into Great-Britain as a result of stringent measures in Germany) Establish: By who? 1. NGO’s 2. Governments 3. International bodies E.g.: The General Assembly of the United Nations: 1.Convention on Transnational Organized Crime – signed by 123 coutries 2.Protocol on smuggling – signed by 77 countries 3.Protocol on trafficking – signed by 80 countries Result: national coalitions & international co-operation

11 The Global Program by CICP & UNICRI: => Several projects in 4 different regions of the world => Focus on research: identifying => MODUS OPERANDI => travel routes => degree of organisation of criminal networks => Questionnaires: collecting quantative emperical data & best practices => Data from NGO’s, victims, government law enforcement & intelligence sources => Information to better develop measures => Better understanding of the factors fueling the problem: historical, cultural, political and economic situations (e.g. the case sof the Philippines & of West-Africa)


13  Aronowitz, A.(2001). Smuggling and trafficking in human beings: the phenomenon, the markets that drive it and the organisations that promote it. European journal on Criminal Policy and Research,9 (2), 163-195. Doi: 10.1023/A1011253129328  EUHomeAffairs (19 june 2012). Personal testimonies of victims of human trafficking [Video]. Consulted at

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