4A dialogue with Alice-bot: > I’m DanielNice to meet you Daniel.> Do you know Clinton?He was the second Impeached President of the United States.> Do you like him?Sure he has never done anything to me.> What is an impeachment?It is a good question. I have to process that one for a while. I would do a search for it.> Who are you?I ask myself that question, "Who am I?"> What do you do?I am chatting with people on the net.
5Dialogue continued: > What is your favorite topic? My favorite subject is artificial intelligence.> What is artificial intelligence?Artificial intelligence is the branch of engineering and science devoted to constructing machines that think. I can ask someone about it.> Can you do anything else than chatting?Doing anything else than chatting is not among my strongest traits....
6Dialogue continued (2): > How old am I?Is this a trick question? You said you were how many years old? My guess is that you are really a kid.> What would you like to know about me?Tell me about your educational background.> I am a professor in computer scienceYou are a professor in computer science? How do you like your work?> It’s kind of nice teaching courses on artificial intelligenceI guess it is a lot of fun.> What should I tell the students about you?Be sure to think before you speak. State your point clearly and slowly and gauge the listener's response before going any further.
7Is Alice intelligent? ABSOLUTELY NOT ! ~ fairly trivial input-response rules.+ some pattern matching+ some knowledge+ some randomnessNO reasoning componentBUT: demonstrates ‘human-like’ behaviour.Won the ‘turing award’
8Other examples of success (2): Data-mining:Which characteristics in the 3-dimensional structure of new molecules indicate that they may cause cancer ??
9Data mining: An application of Machine Learning techniques It solves problems that humans can not solve, because the data involved is too large ..Detecting cancerrisk molecules isone example.
10Data mining: A similar application: In marketing products ... Predicting customerbehavior insupermarkets isanother.
11Many other applications: Computer vision:In language and speech processing:In robotics:
12Interest in AI is not new ! A scene from the 17-hundreds:
13About intelligence ... When would we consider a program intelligent ? When do we consider a creative activity of humans to require intelligence ?Default answers : Never? / Always?
14Does numeric computation require intelligence ? For humans?Xcalc3921 , 56x , 13, 68For computers?Also in the year 1900 ?When do we consider a program ‘intelligent’?
15To situate the question: Two different aims of AI: Long term aim:develop systems that achieve a level of ‘intelligence’ similar / comparable / better? than that of humans.not achievable in the next 20 to 30 yearsShort term aim:on specific tasks that seem to require intelligence: develop systems that achieve a level of ‘intelligence’ similar / comparable / better? than that of humans.achieved for very many tasks already
17The meta-Turing testThe meta-Turing test counts a thing as intelligent if “it seeks to devise and apply Turing tests to objects of its own creation” Lew Mammel, Jr.
18Reproduction versus Simulation At the very least in the context of the short term aim of AI:we do not want to SIMULATE human intelligence BUT:REPRODUCE the effect of intelligenceNice analogy with flying !
20Is the case for most of the successful applications ! Deep blueAliceData miningComputer vision...
21To some extent, we DO simulate: Artificial Neural Nets: A VERY ROUGH imitation of a brain structureWork very well for learning, classifying and pattern matching.Very robust and noise-resistant.
22Different kinds of AI relate to different kinds of Intelligence Some people are very good in reasoning or mathematics, but can hardly learn to read or spell !seem to require different cognitive skills!in AI: ANNs are good for learning and automationfor reasoning we need different techniques
23Which applications are easy ? For very specialized, specific tasks: AIExample:ECG-diagnosisFor tasks requiring common sense: AI
24Modeling Knowledge … and managing it . The LENAT experiment:15 years of work by 15 to 30 people, trying to model the common knowledge in the word !!!!Knowledge should be learned, not engineered.AI: are we only dreaming ????
26Artificial Intelligence is ... In Engineering and Computer Science:The development and the study of advanced computer applications, aimed at solving tasks that - for the moment - are still better preformed by humans.Notice: temporal dependency !Ex. : Prolog
28Choice of the material. Few books are really adequate: E. Rich ( “Artificial Intelligence’’):good for some parts (search, introduction, knowledge representation), outdatedP.Winston ( “Artificial Intelligence’’):didactically VERY good, but lacks technical depth. Somewhat outdated.Norvig & Russel ( ‘”AI: a modern approach’’):encyclopedic, misses depth.Poole et. Al (‘ “Computational Intelligence’’):very formal and technical. Good for logic.Selection and synthesis of the best parts of different books.
29Selection of topics: not for MAI CS and SLT ContentsHandbook of AICh.:Artificial Neural Networks… …Ch.: Introduction to AICh.: Logic, resolution, inferenceCh.:Search techniquesCh.:Game playingCh.:Knowledge representationCh.:Phylosophy of AICh.:Machine LearningCh.:Natural LanguageCh.:Planningnot for MAICS and SLT
30Technically: the contents: - Search techniques in AI(Including games)- Constraint processing(Including applications in Vision and language)- Machine Learning- Planning- Automated Reasoning(Not for MAI CS and SLT)
31Another dimension to view the contents: 1. Basic methods for knowledge representation and problem solving.the course is mainly about AI problem solving !2. Elements of some application area’s:learning, planning, image understanding, language understanding
32Contents (3): Different knowledge representation formalisms ... State space representation and production rules.Constraint-based representations.First-order predicate Logic.
33… each with their corresponding general purpose problem solving techniques: State space representation an production rules.Search methodsConstraint based formulations.Backtracking and Constraint-processingFirst order predicate Logic.Automated reasoning (logical inference)
34Contents (4): Some application area’s: Game playing (in chapter on Search)Image understanding (in chapter on constraints)Language understanding (constraints)Expert systems (in chapter on logic)PlanningMachine learning
35Aims: Many different angles could be taken: Empirical-Experimental AI Algorithms in AIFormal methods in AICognitive aspects of AIApplicationsNeural NetsProbabilistics and Information Theory
36Concrete aims: Provide insight in the basic achievements of AI. Prepares for more application oriented courses on AI, or on self-study in some application areasex.: artificial neural networks, machine learning, computer vision, natural language, etc.Through case-studies: provide more background in ‘problem solving’.Mostly algorithmic aspects.Also techniques for representing and modeling.The 6-study point version: 2 projects for hands-on experience.
38A missing theme: AGENTS (2). Yet, a central theme in recent books !BUT:Have as their main extra contribution:Communication between system and:other systems/agentsthe outside worldIn particular, also a useful conceptual model for integrating different components of an AI systemex: a robot that combines vision, natural language and planning
39BUT: no intelligence without interaction with the world!! See: experiment in middle-ages.See also philosophy arguments against AIPlus: multi-agents is FUN !
40Practical info (FAI) Exercises: 12.5 OR 20 hours: Course material: mainly practice on the main methods/algorithms presented in the courseimportant preparation for the examinationCourse material:copies of detailed slidesfor some parts: supporting textsRequired background:understanding of algorithms (and recursion)
41Practical info (AI) Exercises: 25 or 22.5 hours: Course material: mainly practice on the main methods/algorithms presented in the courseimportant preparation for the examinationCourse material:copies of detailed slidesfor some parts: supporting textsRequired background:understanding of algorithms (and recursion)
42Background Texts Introduction: No document The basics, but no complexityIDA*, SMA*Almost completeThe essenceCompleteIntroIntroduction:State-space Intro:Basic search,Heuristic search:Optimal search:Advanced search:Games:Version Spaces:Constraints I & II:Image understanding:Automated reasoning:Planning STRIPS:Planning deductive:Natural language:No documentWinston: Ch. Basic searchWinston: Ch. Optimal searchRussel: Ch. 4Winston: Ch. Adversary searchWinston: Ch. Learning by managing..Word Document on web pageWinston: Ch. Symbolic constraint …Short text logic (to follow)Winston: Ch. PlanningWinston: Ch. Frames and Common ...
43Examination Open-book exercise examination counts for 1/2 of the pointsClosed-book theory examinationTogether on 1/2 dayThe projects (6 pt. Version)2 projectsCount for 8 out of 20 pointsDeadlines to be anounced soon
44For 3rd year BSc and Initial MScStudents Alternative examinations possible:Full Open-book Exercise examinationDesigning your own exercise (for each part) and solving it (not for FAI)criteria: originality, does the exercise illustrate all aspects of the method, complexity of the exercise, correctness of the solution