Presentation on theme: "The objectives of cataloguing, the technology and the user interface"— Presentation transcript:
1 The objectives of cataloguing, the technology and the user interface Knut HegnaUniversity of OsloInformatics library
2 In the year 1545 Bibliotheca Universalis, or Very extensive catalogue including all writings, in threelanguages, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, existing and non-existing, old and new to this date, scholarly and non-scholarly, published and hidden in the libraries. A new work, necessary not only when a establishing public and private libraries, but very useful for all that studies any art or science as a better fundament for the studies. Author: Conrad Gesner, doctor in medicine, Tigurino (Zürich)
4 Objectives, rules and principles what we want to achieveRuleshow we achieve itPrinciplescharacter of the rules
5 Objectives and rules: Cutter 1904 You might be familiar with Charles Cutter's work which was published in its 4th edition in It is cited everywhere in these days. The first edition was published in 1876, so the 4th ed. is the result of at least 28 years of discussionsOn the left side here we have the objectives and on the right side the rules or means to achieve the objectives.* the first item is the finding objectives* the second is the collocating objectives* the third is the selecting (or choice) objectiveAs you see, the rules or means are closely connected to the objectives.When formulating the objectives in this way, you get operational objetives, you see what rules you must have.Seven years ago, the objective for the Dublin Core Metadata Set was formulated like this: "To improve retrieval on net". This is not very operational and maybe this is the reason Dublin Core has not had its breakhtrough in the library community. As Michael Gorman said: they're trying to reinvent the wheel as something other than round. In the library community we have a clear understanding of the objectives and the means to achieve them.1. To enable a person to find a book of which eitherA. the authorB. the title is knownC. the subject2. To show what the library hasD. by a given authorE. on a given subjectF. in a given kind of literature3. To assist in the choice of a bookG. as to its editionH. as to its character1. Author-entry with the necessary references (for A and D)2. Title-entry og title-reference (for B)3. Subject-entry, cross-references and classed subject-table (for C and E)4. Form-entry and language-entry (for F)5. Giving edition and imprint, with notes when necessary (for G)6. Notes (for H)}
6 Card catalogue structure - author with extensive production James Duff Brown published two works on libraries in the beginning of the 20th century. The first one is entitled "manual of library economy", the second one from which this is cited is entitled "Library classification and cataloguing".This is his proposal for filing in the card catalogue the works of an author with extensive production.<go through>Now if you were to pull out a drawer in the card catalogue with this structure, you would be presented to the authors whole life and works at a glance.The intellectual work put down in the filing rules disappeared when converting to the online data base catalogue. When the card catalogue represented structure, the online catalogue was just a huge amount of of single records. When you do a search in an online catalogue the result list is often without structure even though it is based on the same cataloguing rules as the card catalogue.Single works in chronological order of publicationOriginals, including manuscriptsReprintsTranslations in foreign languagesParodiesCriticism, etc., of single worksCollected works in chronological order of publicationAuthor's editionsEditor's editionsSelectionsParaphrases and condensed versionsDramatic versions of worksMusical settings of works...BiblographyIndexJames Duff Brown. 1916
7 The Paris objectives - 1961 To decide 1. Whether the library contains a particular bookspecified bya. its authors and title, orb. if no author is named in the book, its title alone, orc. if author or title are inappropriate orinsufficient for identification, a suitablesubstitute for the title2. a. which works by a particular authorb. which editions of a workare in the library.
8 FRBR model (1998) - the short version ER : Entities, attributes, Relations entities: of which there are ten, divided in three groups:Group 1: works, expressions of the works, manifestations of the expression (documents), and items (copies) of the manifestations. Works and expressions are abstract. Manifestations and items relate to physical publications.Group 2: responsibility entities - persons and corporate bodies.Group 3: subject entities - concepts, places, events and objects. The other entities might also appear as subject entities.attributes: the entities are described through their attributes. Some examples: a person has a name and birth date; a work has a title; a manifestation has a date of publication and an identification number (e.g. ISBN); an item (copy) has a call number.relations: are defined as links or references between the entities. A work is created by a person. It is a relation between the work and the author of the work. Some other relations: a work is realized through one or more expressions; an expression is embodied in one or more manifestations; a manifestation is exemplified by one or more items.
9 Entities and relations: Group 1 Group 2 created byHeart ofdarknessJoseph ConradHeart ofdarknessSelected worksedited byHeart of dark.critical editionRobert Kimbroughis realized throughread byHeart of dark.sound recDavid ThrelfallHeart of dark.CD versiontranslated byDet inderstemørkeSigurd HoelUngdompublished byGyldendalMørkets hjerteMørkets hjerte1992Mørkets hjerte1999
10 The objectives of FRBR to find to identify to select to obtain entities that correspond to the user's stated search criteriato identifyi.e to confirm that the entity described corresponds to the entity soughtto selectan entity that is appropriate to the user's needs or to reject an entity as being inappropriateto obtainthe entity described through purchase, loan or through electronic access
11 Svenonius’ objectives To find/locatea single documentsets of all documentsbelonging to the same workbelonging to the same editionby a given authoron a given subjectdefined by other criteriaTo navigate in a bibliographic databaseto find works related to a given work by generalization,association and aggregationto find attributes related by equivalence, association and hierarchy
13 OPAC display guidelines User needs principlesContent and arrangement principlesStandardization principle
14 OPAC display guidelines User needs principlesContent and arrangement principlesdisplay what is asked for and needed for further actiondisplay records in an order meaningful to the user, rather than in a random order, when several records are retrievedsupport navigation from the displayed information to related informationStandardization principle
16 Conrad* Conrady, August [1864-1925] Conrad von Hötzendorf, Franz Conradson, Ivar [ ]Conradi, Johan Gottfried [ ]Conradi, Andreas Christian [ ]Conrad, Michael Georg [ ]Conrad, Joseph [ ]psevd for Teodor Jozef Konrad KorzeniowskiJoseph ConradNovels:Almayer’s follyThe arrow of goldChanceHeart of darknessLord JimThe nigger of the ”Narcissus”...
17 Conrad* Conrady, August [1864-1925] Conrad von Hötzendorf, Franz Conradson, Ivar [ ]Conradi, Johan Gottfried [ ]Conradi, Andreas Christian [ ]Conrad, Michael Georg [ ]Conrad, Joseph [ ]psevd for Teodor Jozef Konrad KorzeniowskiJoseph ConradShort stories:An anarchistBecause of the dollarsThe bruteThe duel (a military tale)Falk: a reminiscenceGaspar RuizThe idiots
18 Conrad* Conrady, August [1864-1925] Conrad von Hötzendorf, Franz Conradson, Ivar [ ]Conradi, Johan Gottfried [ ]Conradi, Andreas Christian [ ]Conrad, Michael Georg [ ]Conrad, Joseph [ ]psevd for Teodor Jozef Konrad KorzeniowskiJoseph ConradNovels:Almayer’s follyThe arrow of goldChanceHeart of darknessLord JimThe nigger of the ”Narcissus”...
19 Conrad* Under Western eyes The shadow line The secret agent Nostromo The Nigger of the ”Narcissus”Lord JimHeart of darkness  by Joseph Conrad-Heart of darknessLanguages:Coeur des ténébres [French]Heart of darkness [English]Herz der Finsternis [German]Det inderste mørke [Norwegian]Ja;dro ciemnos'ci [Polish]Mørkets hjerte [Norwegian]Mörkrets hjärta [Swedish]Works based on: Heart of darkness
20 Conrad* Mörkrets hjärta [Swedish] Ja;dro ciemnos'ci [Polish] Det inderste mørke [Norwegian]Herz der Finsternis [German]Coeur des ténébres [French]Heart of darkness [English]Mørkets hjerte by Joseph Conrad1st. Norwegian edition: Det inderste mørkeOriginal title: Heart of darkness-Editions:Mørkets hjerte  translator : Sigurd Hoelseries: århundreMørkets hjerte  translator : Sigurd Hoelseries: Gyldendal klassikerMørkets hjerte  translator : Bjørg Hawthornseries: Kagge pocket
21 Conrad* Mörkrets hjärta [Swedish] Ja;dro ciemnos'ci [Polish] Det inderste mørke [Norwegian]Herz der Finsternis [German]Coeur des ténébres [French]Conrad, Joseph Mørkets hjerte / Joseph Conrad ; oversatt avSigurd Hoel. – Oslo : Gyldendal, ,  s. ;21 cm. - (20. århundre). – (823[S]) Originaltittel: Heart of darkness. –Utgitt første gang på norsk 1929 med tittel: Det inderste mørke ISBN (h.) : NkrHeart of darkness [English]Mørkets hjerte by Joseph Conrad1st. Norwegian edition: Det inderste mørkeOriginal title: Heart of darkness-Editions:Mørkets hjerte  translator : Sigurd Hoelseries: århundreMørkets hjerte  translator : Sigurd Hoelseries: Gyldendal klassikerMørkets hjerte  translator : Bjørg Hawthornseries: Kagge pocketcloseorder
22 Still I can not help thinking that the golden age of cataloging is over,and that the difficulties and discussionswhich have furnished an innocent pleasure to so manywill interest them no more.Another lost art.Charles A. Cutter, 1904