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McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Network Layer Protocols: ARP, IPv4, ICMP, IPv6 and ICMPv6 20.1 ARP 20.2 IP 20.3 ICMP 20.4 IPv6.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Network Layer Protocols: ARP, IPv4, ICMP, IPv6 and ICMPv6 20.1 ARP 20.2 IP 20.3 ICMP 20.4 IPv6."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Network Layer Protocols: ARP, IPv4, ICMP, IPv6 and ICMPv ARP 20.2 IP 20.3 ICMP 20.4 IPv6

2 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 20.1 Protocols at network layer Address Resolution Protocol Find MAC address of next-hop host Reversed ARP Obsolete Internet Control Message Protocol Provides error control and messaging capabilities in unicasting Internet Group Management Protocol Multicasting Internet Protocol: Provides connectionless, best-effort delivery routing of datagrams, is not concerned with the content of the datagrams; looks for a way to move the datagrams to their destination

3 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., ARP Mapping Packet Format Encapsulation Operation

4 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 20.2 ARP operation

5 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 20.3 ARP packet

6 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 20.4 Encapsulation of ARP packet

7 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 20.5 Four cases using ARP

8 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 An ARP request is broadcast; an ARP reply is unicast. Note:

9 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Example 1 A host with IP address and physical address B has a packet to send to another host with IP address and physical address A46EF45983AB. The two hosts are on the same Ethernet network. Show the ARP request and reply packets encapsulated in Ethernet frames. Solution Figure 20.6 shows the ARP request and reply packets. Note that the ARP data field in this case is 28 bytes, and that the individual addresses do not fit in the 4-byte boundary. That is why we do not show the regular 4-byte boundaries for these addresses. Note that we use hexadecimal for every field except the IP addresses.

10 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 20.6 Example 1

11 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., IP Datagram Fragmentation

12 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 20.7 IP datagram

13 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 IP Datagram Fields VERS - Version number HLEN - Header length, in 32-bit words Type of Service - How the datagram should be handled Total Length - Total length, header + data Identification, Flags, Frag. Offset - Provides fragmentation of datagrams to allow differing MTU's in the Internetwork TTL - Time-To-Live Protocol - The upper-layer (Layer 4) protocol sending and receiving the datagram Header Checksum - An integrity check on the header Source IP Address and Destination IP Address - 32-bit IP addresses IP Options - Network testing, debugging, security, and other options Data - Data

14 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 20.8 Multiplexing

15 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 20.9 Example of checksum calculation

16 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Fragmentation example

17 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure MTU

18 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., ICMP Types of ICMP Messages IP gives unreliable and connectionless datagram delivery. So it gives best-effort delivery service. Efficient use of network resources. No error control/reporting. No messaging capability. ICMP = Internet Control Message Protocol

19 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure ICMP encapsulation

20 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 ICMP always reports error messages to the original source. Note:

21 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Error-reporting messages Packet discarded, router/host cannot deliver datagram. Packet discarded, router/host is congested. Added Flow control to IP. Packet discarded router/host gets Datagram with 0 TTL, or fragments arrive late. Packet discarded, router/host gets ambiguous datagram. Packet sent to wrong router.

22 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 There is no flow control or congestion control mechanism in IP. Note:

23 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Query messages Identify network communication problems between systems (host or routers) Get round-trip time, Synchronize clocks. Get mask to identify network or subnetwork part of IP address. Get information of alive and functioning routers.

24 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., IPv6 IPv6 Addresses Categories of Addresses IPv6 Packet Format Fragmentation ICMPv6 Transition

25 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 WORLD INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION STATISTICS World Regions Population ( 2008 Est.) Internet Users Dec/31, 2000 Internet Usage, Latest Data % Population (Penetration) Usage % of World Usage Growth Africa 955,206,3484,514,40051,065, % 3.5 % 1,031.2 % Asia 3,776,181,949114,304,000578,538, % 39.5 % % Europe 800,401,065105,096,093384,633, % 26.3 % % Middle East 197,090,4433,284,80041,939, % 2.9 % 1,176.8 % North America 337,167,248108,096,800248,241, % 17.0 % % Latin America/Caribbea n 576,091,67318,068,919139,009, % 9.5 % % Oceania / Australia 33,981,5627,620,48020,204, % 1.4 % % WORLD TOTAL 6,676,120,288360,985,492 1,463,632, % % % NOTES: (1) Internet Usage and World Population Statistics are for June 30, (2) Population numbers are based on data from the US Census Bureau.US Census Bureau (3) Internet usage information comes from data published by Nielsen//NetRatings,Nielsen//NetRatings by the International Telecommunications Union, by local NIC, and other reliable sources.International Telecommunications Union Source:

26 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 IPv6 การปรับปรุงที่ชัดเจนของ IPv6 คือความยาวของ IP address เปลี่ยนจาก 32 bits เป็น 128 bits การขยายดังกล่าวเพื่อรองรับการขยายของ อินเตอร์เน็ต และเพื่อหลีกเลี่ยงการขาดแคลนของ ตำแหน่งเครือข่าย

27 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Address space ส่วนแตกต่างที่เด่นที่สุดของ IPv6 ซึ่งพัฒนา มาจาก IPv4 คือIPv6 IPv4 ใช้ address ยาว 32-bit32-bit ( กว่า 4 พันล้าน addresses) IPv6 ใช้ address ยาว 128-bit addresses128-bit ( กว่า 3.4×10 38 addresses)

28 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure IPv6 address

29 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Abbreviated address

30 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Abbreviated address with consecutive zeros

31 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure CIDR address

32 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Format of an IPv6 datagram

33 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure 2 Format of an IPv6 datagram

34 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Table 4 Comparison between IPv4 and IPv6 packet headers

35 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Comparison of network layers in version 4 and version 6

36 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004

37 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Technology converging to 4G คาดการณ์กันว่าทุกเทคโนโลยีจะต้องใช้ IP เป็นโปรโตคอลพื้นฐาน

38 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Why so slow? As of December 2005, IPv6 accounts for a tiny percentage of the live addresses in the publicly- accessible Internet, which is still dominated by IPv4. As of December 2005 Slow because of classless addressing network address translation (NAT), network address translation When will we runout of IPv4 addresses? APNIC (2003): the available space would last until 2023, APNIC Cisco Systems (2005): available addresses would be exhausted in 4 – 5 years. Cisco Systems

39 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 When is the change? Although adoption of IPv6 has been slow, as of 2008, all United States government systems must support IPv6.2008United States government Meanwhile China is planning to get a head start implementing IPv6 with their 5 year plan for the China Next Generation Internet.China5 year planChina Next Generation Internet The country of Japan changed to IPv6.Japan

40 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 TRANSITION FROM IPv4 TO IPv6 Because of the huge number of systems on the Internet, the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 cannot happen suddenly. It takes a considerable amount of time before every system in the Internet can move from IPv4 to IPv6. The transition must be smooth to prevent any problems between IPv4 and IPv6 systems. Dual Stack Tunneling Topics discussed in this section:

41 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Three transition strategies

42 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Three transition strategies

43 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Tunneling

44 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Figure Header translation

45 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 ในส่วนของประเทศไทย ในปัจจุบันได้มีการก่อตั้งคณะทำงาน ระดับประเทศขึ้นภายใต้ชื่อ Thailand IPv6 Forum กิจกรรมในปัจจุบันของ Thailand IPv6 Forum ได้แก่ การเข้าร่วมเป็นสมาชิกของ Asia-Pacific IPv6 Task Force และการ เชื่อมต่อแบบ Native IPv6

46 McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Summary Internet Protocol Provides connectionless, best-effort delivery routing of datagrams, is not concerned with the content of the datagrams; looks for a way to move the datagrams to their destination ARP Find MAC address of next-hop host RARP (obsolete) ICMP Provides error control and messaging capabilities in unicasting


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