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POST CLASSICAL PERIOD 600-1450 Trade and Faith Define An Age.

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Presentation on theme: "POST CLASSICAL PERIOD 600-1450 Trade and Faith Define An Age."— Presentation transcript:

Trade and Faith Define An Age

2 600-1450 Topics Break– fall of classical empires
Spread of great world religions Medieval world Growth of trade/interaction Renaissance

3 600-1450 Chapter Topics 6-8—Islam and its spread 8—Africa
9—Eastern Europe 10—Medieval Europe 11—Americas 12—Chinese Renaissance 13—Japan, Korea and Vietnam 14—Mongols 15—Beginning of European Renaissance

4 600-1450 Themes Questions of periodization
Nature and causes of changes in the world history framework leading up to 600 C.E.—1450 as a period Emergence of new empires and political systems (e.g., Umayyad, ‘Abbasid, Byzantium, Russia, Sudanic states, Swahili Coast, Tang, Song, and Ming China, Delhi Sultanate, Mongol, Turkish, Aztec, Inca) Continuities and breaks within the period (e.g., the effects of the Mongols on international contacts and on specific societies)

5 600-1450 Themes The Islamic world
The rise and role of Dar al-Islam as a unifying cultural and economic force in Eurasia and Africa Islamic political structures, notably the caliphate Arts, sciences, and technologies

6 600-1450 Themes Interregional networks and contacts
Development and shifts in interregional trade, technology, and cultural exchange Trans-Sahara trade Indian Ocean trade Silk Roads Economic innovations e.g., Tang, Song, and early Ming China, Swahili Coast trade, economic systems in the Americas Missionary outreach of major religions Contacts between major religions, e.g., Islam and Buddhism, Christianity and Islam Impact of the Mongol empires

7 600-1450 Themes Political systems and cultural patterns East Asia
China’s expansion Chinese influence on surrounding areas and its limits (Japan, Vietnam, and Korea) Change and continuities in Confucianism The Americas Apex and decline of the Maya Rise of the Aztec Rise of the Inca Restructuring of Europe Decentralization—medieval society Division of Christianity Revival of cities Africa Sudanic empires (Mali, Ghana, Songhay) Swahili coast South Asia and Southeast Asia Delhi Sultanate Vietnam Arts, sciences, and technologies

8 600-1450 Themes Demographic and environmental changes
Impact of migrations on Afro-Eurasia and the Americas e.g., Aztecs, Mongols, Turks, Vikings, and Arabs Consequences of plague pandemics in the fourteenth century Growth and role of cities e.g., the expansion of urban commercial centers in Song China and administrative centers in Africa and the Americas

9 600-1450 Themes Diverse interpretations
What are the issues involved in using cultural areas rather than states as units of analysis? What are the sources of change: nomadic migrations versus urban growth? Was there a world economic network in this period? Were there common patterns in the new opportunities available to and constraints placed on elite women in this period? To what extent was Dar al-Islam a unified cultural/political entity?

10 600-1450 Major Comparisons and Analyses: Examples
Compare the role and function of cities in major societies Analyze gender systems and changes, such as the effects of Islam Analyze the interactions between Jews, Christians, and Muslims Compare developments in political and social institutions in both eastern and western Europe Compare Japanese and European feudalism Compare European and sub-Saharan African contacts with the Islamic world Analyze the Chinese civil service exam system and the rise of meritocracy

11 Examples of the types of information students are expected to know contrasted with examples of what students are not expected to know for the multiple-choice section: Arab caliphate, but not the transition from Umayyad to ‘Abbasid Mamluks, but not Almohads Feudalism, but not specific feudal monarchs such as Richard I Land management systems, but not the European three-field system Crusading movement and its impact, but not specific crusades Viking exploration, expansion, and impact, but not individual explorers Mongol expansion and its impact, but not details of specific khanates Papacy, but not particular popes Indian Ocean trading patterns, but not Gujarati merchants Neoconfucianism, but not the specific contribution of Zhu Xi

12 Development of systematic interactions between civilizations – Trade Contacts
1000 – dependable trade routes – regular product exchange. N to S and W to E routes – exchange of technologies and ideas – cultural diffusion. Ie. Arabic numerals from India

13 trade contacts continued …
Travel increases during this period Ibn Battuta and Marco Polo Americas: way behind No disease contact No technological contact No animal exchange Did not use bronze or iron

14 Development of systematic interactions between civilizations – Spread of World Religions
Buddhism, Christianity, Islam (most important in the numbers affected) Spread across cultural/political boundaries (missionaries, trade…) Large numbers convert Syncretic conversion Accept new beliefs but keep some of their own Religious map of Eurasia set

15 Islam Rise of Arab Islam Becomes first world class superpower
Before this best was probably India

16 Why convert to new religions?
Decline of classical empires More chaos, death rates increase China Buddhism created decline in secular thought Fervency of missionaries Governments used Christianity for power i.e., Vladimir in Russia became Christian

17 Religions That Were Not Global
Hinduism Did not travel well outside of India Needed the Caste System Guptas favored Hinduism within India Daoism No missionary qualities Shintoism (Japan)

18 Spread of Civilization
Spreads to other areas Number of definable civilizations increases Because of disunity of Mediterranean world

19 7 Civilization Areas by 1450 Expanded East Asia S. and S.E. Asia
W. Asia (Middle East and N. Africa) Sub Saharan Africa Eastern Europe Western Europe Americas

20 3 types of civilization Most developed Classical past to build on
Middle East, North Africa, India, Byzantine Empire Classical past to build on Most trade Centralized politically The “developed” world

21 3 types of civilization Less developed
Japan, Russia, W. Europe, E. Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, S & E Asia Some world trade – less processed goods More decentralized politically Not as large bureaucracies Active, self-conscious imitators of developed civilizations Copied social and cultural things: religion, alphabets, art

22 less developed continued …
Copied technology and political structure Didn’t do a good job of it What Western Europe copied from Islam Gothic arch was Islamic arch Law Science and math Role of reason

23 Least developed Americas Not in contact with world or world religions
Didn’t matter until contact occurred Had their own achievements but not as good as first and second tier countries

24 Women – good and bad Good
Spread of world religions – Christianity/ Islam / Buddhism Men and women share spiritual equality Equality not a belief in Classical society Patriarchal society

25 women continued … Bad Politically and economically – major deterioration in the life of women Veiling – originally from Mesopotamia Sati – wife on funeral pyre Footbinding (women as ornamental)

26 What IS and ISN’T in This Time
Religion is in control Politics not as important Not many technological developments Population growth only in some regions

27 Islam Trade patterns Some change in India Least change in China
Change and continuity: What changes in the Post Classical in relation to the Foundations Period? Islam Trade patterns Some change in India Least change in China

Trade and Faith Define An Age

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