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POST CLASSICAL PERIOD 600-1450 Trade and Faith Define An Age.

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Presentation on theme: "POST CLASSICAL PERIOD 600-1450 Trade and Faith Define An Age."— Presentation transcript:

1 POST CLASSICAL PERIOD Trade and Faith Define An Age

2 Topics •Break– fall of classical empires •Spread of great world religions •Medieval world •Growth of trade/interaction •Renaissance

3 Chapter Topics •6-8—Islam and its spread •8—Africa •9—Eastern Europe •10—Medieval Europe •11—Americas •12—Chinese Renaissance •13—Japan, Korea and Vietnam •14—Mongols •15—Beginning of European Renaissance

4 Themes •Questions of periodization –Nature and causes of changes in the world history framework leading up to 600 C.E.—1450 as a period –Emergence of new empires and political systems •(e.g., Umayyad, ‘Abbasid, Byzantium, Russia, Sudanic states, Swahili Coast, Tang, Song, and Ming China, Delhi Sultanate, Mongol, Turkish, Aztec, Inca) –Continuities and breaks within the period •(e.g., the effects of the Mongols on international contacts and on specific societies)

5 Themes •The Islamic world –The rise and role of Dar al-Islam as a unifying cultural and economic force in Eurasia and Africa –Islamic political structures, notably the caliphate –Arts, sciences, and technologies

6 Themes •Interregional networks and contacts –Development and shifts in interregional trade, technology, and cultural exchange –Trans-Sahara trade –Indian Ocean trade –Silk Roads –Economic innovations •e.g., Tang, Song, and early Ming China, Swahili Coast trade, economic systems in the Americas –Missionary outreach of major religions –Contacts between major religions, e.g., Islam and Buddhism, Christianity and Islam –Impact of the Mongol empires

7 Themes •Political systems and cultural patterns –East Asia •China’s expansion •Chinese influence on surrounding areas and its limits (Japan, Vietnam, and Korea) •Change and continuities in Confucianism –The Americas •Apex and decline of the Maya •Rise of the Aztec •Rise of the Inca –Restructuring of Europe •Decentralization—medieval society •Division of Christianity •Revival of cities –Africa •Sudanic empires (Mali, Ghana, Songhay) •Swahili coast –South Asia and Southeast Asia •Delhi Sultanate –Vietnam •Arts, sciences, and technologies

8 Themes •Demographic and environmental changes –Impact of migrations on Afro-Eurasia and the Americas •e.g., Aztecs, Mongols, Turks, Vikings, and Arabs –Consequences of plague pandemics in the fourteenth century –Growth and role of cities •e.g., the expansion of urban commercial centers in Song China and administrative centers in Africa and the Americas

9 Themes •Diverse interpretations –What are the issues involved in using cultural areas rather than states as units of analysis? –What are the sources of change: nomadic migrations versus urban growth? –Was there a world economic network in this period? –Were there common patterns in the new opportunities available to and constraints placed on elite women in this period? –To what extent was Dar al-Islam a unified cultural/political entity?

10 Major Comparisons and Analyses: Examples •Compare the role and function of cities in major societies •Analyze gender systems and changes, such as the effects of Islam •Analyze the interactions between Jews, Christians, and Muslims •Compare developments in political and social institutions in both eastern and western Europe •Compare Japanese and European feudalism •Compare European and sub-Saharan African contacts with the Islamic world •Analyze the Chinese civil service exam system and the rise of meritocracy

11 Examples of the types of information students are expected to know contrasted with examples of what students are not expected to know for the multiple-choice section: •Arab caliphate, but not the transition from Umayyad to ‘Abbasid •Mamluks, but not Almohads •Feudalism, but not specific feudal monarchs such as Richard I •Land management systems, but not the European three-field system •Crusading movement and its impact, but not specific crusades •Viking exploration, expansion, and impact, but not individual explorers •Mongol expansion and its impact, but not details of specific khanates •Papacy, but not particular popes •Indian Ocean trading patterns, but not Gujarati merchants •Neoconfucianism, but not the specific contribution of Zhu Xi

12 Development of systematic interactions between civilizations – Trade Contacts •1000 – dependable trade routes – regular product exchange. •N to S and W to E routes – exchange of technologies and ideas – cultural diffusion. Ie. Arabic numerals from India

13 trade contacts continued … •Travel increases during this period – Ibn Battuta and Marco Polo •Americas: way behind –No disease contact –No technological contact –No animal exchange –Did not use bronze or iron

14 Development of systematic interactions between civilizations – Spread of World Religions •Buddhism, Christianity, Islam (most important in the numbers affected) •Spread across cultural/political boundaries (missionaries, trade…) –Large numbers convert –Syncretic conversion •Accept new beliefs but keep some of their own –Religious map of Eurasia set

15 Islam •Rise of Arab Islam •Becomes first world class superpower –Before this best was probably India

16 Why convert to new religions? •Decline of classical empires –More chaos, death rates increase •China –Buddhism created decline in secular thought •Fervency of missionaries •Governments used Christianity for power –i.e., Vladimir in Russia became Christian

17 Religions That Were Not Global •Hinduism –Did not travel well outside of India •Needed the Caste System •Guptas favored Hinduism within India •Daoism –No missionary qualities •Shintoism (Japan) –No missionary qualities

18 Spread of Civilization •Spreads to other areas •Number of definable civilizations increases •Because of disunity of Mediterranean world

19 7 Civilization Areas by 1450 •Expanded East Asia •S. and S.E. Asia •W. Asia (Middle East and N. Africa) •Sub Saharan Africa •Eastern Europe •Western Europe •Americas

20 3 types of civilization •Most developed –Middle East, North Africa, India, Byzantine Empire –Classical past to build on –Most trade –Centralized politically –The “developed” world

21 3 types of civilization •Less developed –Japan, Russia, W. Europe, E. Europe, Sub- Saharan Africa, S & E Asia –Some world trade – less processed goods –More decentralized politically •Not as large bureaucracies –Active, self-conscious imitators of developed civilizations •Copied social and cultural things: religion, alphabets, art

22 less developed continued … –Copied technology and political structure •Didn’t do a good job of it –What Western Europe copied from Islam •Gothic arch was Islamic arch •Law •Science and math •Role of reason

23 Least developed •Americas –Not in contact with world or world religions –Didn’t matter until contact occurred – Had their own achievements but not as good as first and second tier countries

24 Women – good and bad •Good –Spread of world religions – Christianity/ Islam / Buddhism –Men and women share spiritual equality –Equality not a belief in Classical society •Patriarchal society

25 women continued … •Bad –Politically and economically – major deterioration in the life of women –Veiling – originally from Mesopotamia –Sati – wife on funeral pyre –Footbinding (women as ornamental)

26 What IS and ISN’T in This Time •Religion is in control •Politics not as important •Not many technological developments •Population growth only in some regions

27 Change and continuity: What changes in the Post Classical in relation to the Foundations Period? •Islam •Trade patterns •Some change in India •Least change in China

28 POST CLASSICAL PERIOD Trade and Faith Define An Age

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