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600-1450 The Post-Classical Era. Improved transportation and commercial tech led to increased trade & expanded the geographical range of existing and.

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Presentation on theme: "600-1450 The Post-Classical Era. Improved transportation and commercial tech led to increased trade & expanded the geographical range of existing and."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Post-Classical Era

2 Improved transportation and commercial tech led to increased trade & expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active networks.

3 Existing trade routes flourished & promoted the growth of powerful new trading cities.

4 Trans- Saharan Network

5 Mediterranean Sea

6 Indian Ocean Basins

7 Trading City: Venice

8 New Trade routes centering on Mesoamerica and the Andes developed.

9 Trade in luxury goods increased with new technologies. Caravan organization Navigation: astrolabe, compass, larger ships New forms of credit and money astrolabe

10 Commercial growth eased by state practices, trade orgs, and infrastructure State practice: minting of coins Trading organization: Hanseatic League

11 Expansion of empires aided trade and communication, drawing in new people. China – Tang Empire Byzantine Empire Caliphates Mongols

12 Movement of peoples caused environmental and linguistic effects. Expansion & intensification of long distance trade depended on environmental knowledge and adaptations to it. Example: Arabs, camels, the Sahara

13 Some migrations had significant environmental impact. Bantu migration

14 Some migrations had significant environmental impact. Example: Polynesian Migration

15 Cross-cultural exchanges fostered by networks of trade and communication Islam: result of interaction Spread of Islam through merchants and missionaries Sufi whirling (meditation) Arabian dhow

16 On trade routes, merchants set up diasporic communities where cultural blending (syncretism) occurred. Muslim merchant communities in the IO region Great mosque of Kilwa, earliest mosque in East Africa

17 Writings of certain interregional travelers show the extent and limitations of intercultural knowledge and understanding. Examples: Ibn Battuta & Marco Polo

18 Increased cross-cultural interactions resulted in the diffusion (spread) of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions. Example: Influence of Neo-Confucianism and Buddhism in East Asia

19 Increased cross-cultural interactions also led to the spread of science and technology. Example: Printing and gunpowder technologies from East Asia into Islamic Empires and Western Europe

20 Continued spread of crops and diseases along trade routes E.g. Spread of cotton, sugar, and citrus throughout Dar-al-Islam (areas where Muslims can practice their religion freely)

21 Spread of diseases Black Death during Pax Mongolica

22 Empires collapsed and were rebuilt; in some regions new state forms emerged. Byzantine Empire continues Rome Sui-Tang-Song

23 Most reborn governments combined power traditions with innovations. e.g. Patriarchy in Sui-Tang-Song China e.g. adaptation of religion

24 Some new forms of governance emerged. Islamic states (Umayyad, Abbasid caliphates) City states Decentralized (feudal) states

25 Some states borrowed & blended local traditions. E.g. Sinofication of Japan

26 In Americas: expanded states, networks, and empires Mayan city-states Aztec Empire Incan Empire

27 Interregional contacts and conflicts led to technological and cultural transfers. Tang China & Abbasids Pax Mongolica The Crusades

28 Innovations stimulated agricultural and industrial production. Increase in agricultural production due to technological innovations Champa rice in East Asia Horse collar in Europe

29 Chinese, Persian, and Indian artisans and merchants expanded production for export. Song commercial revolution – porcelain

30 Fate of cities varied from decline to growth Factors leading to decline: – Invasions, e.g. Mongols – Disease – Climate: Little Ice Age

31 Factors leading to urban growth End of invasions Safe & reliable transport Rise of commerce Global warming from Greater availability of labor

32 Some older cities declined while new cities replaced them. Baghdad to Cairo Rise of Italian city-states Venice


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