2 Reproduction Not required for the survival of an individual Reproduction is necessary to ensure the survival of a speciesIndividual species produce more of the same speciesEndocrine glands (testes – male; ovaries – female) ensures the sexual maturation of each individualTestes produces sperm (male gamete/ sex cell)Ovaries produce egg (female gamete/ sex cell)All cells in the human body (except gametes) have 46 chromosomesEach gamete contains 23Result of fertilization is a zygote with 46 chromosomes
3 Comparison of the Female and Male Reproductive Systems Primary reproductive organs called gonadsovaries in females – produce oocytes (eggs)testes in males – produce spermProduce gametes which unite to form a new individualReproductive organs produce large amounts of hormones which affect maturation, development, and changes in the bodyOvaries produceEstrogenprogesteroneTestes produce:testosterone
4 Comparison of the Female and Male Reproductive Systems Both have accessory reproductive organs, including duct systems to carry gametes away from the gonads toward the site of fertilization (in females) or to the outside of the body (in males).Fertilization occurs when male and female gametes meetA zygote is formed
5 Comparison of the Female and Male Reproductive Systems Primarily nonfunctional and “dormant” until puberty.At puberty, external sex characteristics become more prominentreproductive organs become fully functionalgametes maturegonads secrete sex hormonesBoth reproductive systems produce gametesFemale typically produces and releases a single oocyte (egg) monthlyMale produces 100,000,000’s of (sperm) daily.
6 FertilizationFertilization and Fetal Development
8 Pathway of the Egg CellFallopian tubes (oviducts) are passageways for eggs to travel from the ovary to the uterusEach month one of the ovaries releases a mature egg which enters the fallopian tubeFertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tubeEgg moves to the uterusIf fertilized, becomes attached to uterine wallIf not fertilized, the egg breaks down along with the lining of the uterus and passes out of the body through the vagina in a process call menstruation
10 Pathway of a SpermMale reproductive system is specialized to produce sperm and testosteroneMajor structures are the testes, scrotum and penisSperm cells form in the testes which also produce the hormone testosteroneTestes located in an external pouch of skin called the scrotumDuring passage through other structures sperm mix with fluids produced by nearby glandsMixture of sperm cells and fluids is called semenSemen contains about 5-10 million sperm per dropSemen contains nutrients that provide energy to the moving sperm and a fluid environment in which to swimSemen leaves the body through the urethra, a tube located within the penis, urine also leaves the body through the urethra