Presentation on theme: "Journal 10/18 Explain why you should care about the invasive species of flatworm called bipalium? How would an invasion of this worm affect you personally?"— Presentation transcript:
Journal 10/18 Explain why you should care about the invasive species of flatworm called bipalium? How would an invasion of this worm affect you personally? Get out your Plethora of Planaria lab so we can take day 2 observations
UNIT 3A- PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES Parasitic Flukes & Tapeworms
CLASS TREMATODA 1.Common name- flukes 2.Endoparasitic- live inside host 3.Wide, flat with oval or elongate bodies 4.Have 2-3 hosts 1.Intermediate hosts- where asexual part of life cycle occurs 2.Definitive host- final host where sexual part of life cycle occurs 5.Almost all adult flukes are parasites of vertebrates (fish, frogs, turtles, livestock, and humans) 6.Internal anatomy is similar to Turbellarians (planarians).
CLASS TREMATODA EX: Liver Flukes 1.Types: a.Chinese liver fluke- common parasite of humans that live in Asia. b.Sheep liver fluke- common in sheep or people who raise sheep 2.Lives in the liver where it eats tissue & blood. 3.Contracted by a.Eating uncooked contaminated food (sushi) b.Eating water plants (water cress) infected with larvae
CLASS TREMATODA EX: Liver Fluke 4.Signs & Symptoms: Enlarged liver Feeling of fullness Abdominal discomfort Jaundice Fatigue Weakness Nausea Weight loss 5.Detection: look for eggs in stool or larvae in blood 6.Treatment: triclabendazole
Liver Fluke Life Cycle 1.Eggs passed out w/feces 2.Eggs ingested by a snail- the first intermediate host. a.Inside the snail, the eggs undergo asexual reproduction & metamorphosis 1.Miracidia- cilia for swimming 2.Sporocysts- asexual reprod. 3.Rediae- worm like stage 4.Cercariae- has tail for swimming 3.Free swimming cercariae burrow out of skin of snail and search out fish or plant- the second intermediate host. 4.Cercariae encyst in fish/plant and are called metacercariae which is then ingested by a human or other vertebrate. 5.Metacercariae excyst in the intestine and migrate to the liver where they live, feed & reproduce sexually.
CLASS TREMATODA EX: Blood Flukes 1.Common in Africa, Asia, S. America 2.Cause disease known as Schistosomiasis (A.K.A. bilharzia) 3.Symptoms: – Fever & chills – lymph node enlargement – liver and spleen enlargement – frequent urination, blood in urine and in stool – Invasion in skin may cause rash (swimmers itch)
Swimmers Itch Signs from Lake Michigan Area
CLASS CESTODA 1.Common name: tapeworms 2.Endoparasitic: live inside host 3.Long, flat ribbon-like bodies 4.White w/shades of yellow or gray 5.Size: 1mm to 15 m in length (up to 60 ft!)
CLASS CESTODA 6. Body Structure a.Scolex- head-like structure; hooks & suckers for attachment (not feeding) b.Neck- contains immature proglottids- series of repeating units of reproductive organs. c.Strobila- rest of body; contains proglottids that are mature and gravid- full of eggs.
CLASS CESTODA 7. Digestion a. No mouth or digestive tract. b. Absorb nutrients directly across their body wall.
CLASS CESTODA 8.Signs/Symptoms: – Nausea & Weakness – Loss of appetite – Weight loss & diarrhea – Inadequate absorption of nutrients in food – Can lead to Cysticercosis disease in humans where larvae encyst in your muscle. These cysts can end up in brain and cause death. 9.Detection: MRI or Xrays can detect cysts in muscle. 10.Treatment: Depends on infection & location of cysts. Albendazole and anti- inflammatory drugs help but surgical removal may be necessary.
California had the highest percentage of fatal cysticercosis from 1990-2002!
Life Cycle of a Tapeworm 1.Eggs or gravid proglottids are passed with feces into environment. 2.Cows, pigs, fish ingest eggs/gravid proglottids from vegetation in environment. 3.Oncospheres (larva) hatch in intestine, burrow thru intestinal wall, and enter circulatory system where they end up in muscle where they become a bladderworm inside a cyst. 4.Humans are infected by ingesting uncooked infected meat. 5.Bladderworm will hatch in stomach and migrate to intestine where they attach to intestinal wall with hooks and suckers and begin absorbing nutrients. 6.Adults sexually reproduce in final vertebrate host (human)
Life Cycle of Tapeworm in Dog Tapeworm inside fleas Dog chews when flea bites and ingests fleas Dog may also eat feces infected with tapeworm eggs/proglottids Tapeworm Lifecycle Movie - YouTube Tapeworm Lifecycle Movie - YouTube
Environmental/Economic Significance of Parasitic Flatworms 1.Cause disease in vertebrates in many countries 2.Must study the worms to figure out how to treat infected people.