Presentation on theme: "Samuel Perry. Introduction Monsters Inside Found world wide, but is common in regions where humans work closely with pigs and eat ill-prepared pork. Intermediate."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Monsters Inside Found world wide, but is common in regions where humans work closely with pigs and eat ill-prepared pork. Intermediate host – pigs Definitive host - humans
Anatomy Scolex – Common name for the “head”. All tapeworms, or Cyclophyllids, have four suckers. Proglottids – The segments that form the body of the tapeworm. Each proglottid contains both male and female reproductive structures, allowing them to independently reproduce. New proglottids are produced near the anterior end of the tapeworm, pushing older segments to the posterior end. Gravid Proglottids – When a proglottid reaches the tail of the tapeworm, only the reproductive tract is left in tact. The proglottid then drops off, creating a makeshift “egg sac”, or gravid proglottid.
Anatomy Rostellum – The circular row of hooks that appear to be teeth. Cysticercus – The larval cyst of the tapeworm, which, if consumed through undercooked meat, attach to the intestinal wall where it will develop proglottids as it matures.
Symptoms The condition when cysticerci develop in the tissues/organs of humans of called cysticercosis. Symptoms depend on where the cysticerci form. Symptoms range from death to nothing at all. Symptoms of a normal intestinal infection include malnutrition, abdominal discomfort, constipation, diarrhea, and weight loss.
Treatment Praziquantel is the preferred drug to treat intestinal infestations of tapeworms. Albendazole combined with steroid treatments are used for patients with cysticercosis. Anti-seizure medication may also be beneficial. Surgery can be used to remove problematic cysticerci.
Diagnosis Eggs and gravid proglottids found in the fecal matter diagnose intestinal infections, not cysticercosis. Blood tests detect antibodies to the parasite. Tissue biopsies of the infected areas. CT scans, MRIs, and x-rays can detect lesions.
Prevention Avoid contact with pigs. Do not consume raw or undercooked pork. Do not eat pork from likely infested sources. Cook meat at 150 degrees F. Wash hands after using the bathroom. Thoroughly wash all raw fruits and vegetables before eating. Drink only known sanitary water. Avoid drinking fountains or ice cubes in areas where pigs roam freely or where sanitation is inadequate. Freezing is also effective, as cysticerci are known to die at temperatures below -10 C and over 50 C.