Presentation on theme: "Storage containers, cookware and dishes were as necessary for the Ancient Greeks as they are for us. Without much glass and with metal expensive, clay."— Presentation transcript:
Storage containers, cookware and dishes were as necessary for the Ancient Greeks as they are for us. Without much glass and with metal expensive, clay was a very handy material.
Clay is inexpensive and readily available. It is weathered rock that has crumbled to dust. It is easily worked and can be shaped as desired. Once fired it is quite strong and waterproof. It makes an ideal material for containers of all sorts. The impurities in clay give it varying colors. For instance, red clay contains iron.
The clay is kneaded and placed on a wheel. As the wheel spins, the potter shapes the clay and forms it into the desired shapes. Large pots are made in sections. Handles, feet and spouts were also fabricated separately. Sections are glued together with a layer of thin, watery, clay, known as a slip.
Once made, the entire pot is painted with a thin black slip. How this slip is applied will create an image. The entire object is then fired in 3 stages.
Only men were allowed to make pots in Ancient Greece, though women were permitted to paint them. Pottery was frequently made by slaves. What survives is often not high art. Really valuable containers tended to be made of bronze, silver or gold. However, little of this survives because the metal was reused. Pottery fragments, having no real value, survive.
Pots were shaped according to their function.
Amphora were large storage containers made with two carrying handles. The most frequent form of vase was the amphora. It was made in all sizes, from the small drug vase two or three inches high to the large receiver of oil, grain, fruit, wine, or water. This was a favorite vase for decoration.
Pysix were small storage boxes.
Alabastron were small vases for perfume or oil.
Aryballos were containers that athletes used to hold their oil supply.
Hydria were used to carry water from wells, springs or rivers.
Kraters were bowls to mix water and wine in.
Wine was ladled from kraters into shallow wine cups called kylix.
It was also poured directly out of wine jugs called oinochoe.
Lekythos were used to store oil
Pottery is one of the oldest surviving art forms from Ancient Greece. Works and fragments survive from the 2 nd millennium BC to the end of the 1 st century BC. Greek pottery was traded throughout the Mediterranean world and beyond.
Minoan & Mycenaean pottery is the oldest that we know of. It was exuberantly decorated. It tends have as a trait horror vacui or fear of leaving open space.
Regular geometric patterns and shapes, not animal forms, are pervasive. From the end of the 2 nd millennium the geometric style dominates.
Contact with Asia brought new innovation in design. Stylized dot flowers and mythical animals reappear in the bands of design. The artwork is done in bands known as registers.
During the orientalizing period (roughly BC) the black figure technique is employed in Corinth. In the 7 th century BC, this spreads to Athens.
The Archaic style existed from around 700 to 480 BC. Mythology and life became important subjects. Some artists signed their work.
Artists painted black images silhouetted against the natural red clay background. Details were inserted by etching the black figures. White or purple paint could then be added. The Black-figure style really did not dominate until the 6 th century BC.
Red -figure was achieved by reversing the method of black figure painting. The red figures are preserved and the background is painted. This is more difficult but it allowed the design to be seen better at a distance and it leaves the contour of the pot more visible. The red-figure style appeared between BC.
White-figure technique: chalky white clay slip used to provide a background for the painted figures A variation on red-figure Artist covers pot with white clay, then applies black glaze to outline the figures and color them in with brown, purple, red, and white Limited range of colors, so not used on every-day items
By the end of the 5 th century BC, pottery painting seems to lose its status as an art form. Some suggest that metal bowls and vases were now favored by the rich. Outside Greece, local manufacturing continued, particularly in what is now Southern Italy. In the 3 rd century BC, the painting of pottery before firing seems to end. Decoration was now separate from potting entirely.
1. What do you think is on the vases you saw? 2. What is the same about the pictures you saw? What is different? 3. What do you think people did with these vases?
Which of the following is an example of and Amphora style Vase? a. b. c. d.