3Plant cell wall proteins Structural proteins: the major part of cell wall proteinsFunctions: contribute to the cell wall strengthcontrol cell wall assembly, expansion, hydration, andpermeabilityserve as possible nucleation sites for lignification and as sourcesof signaling moleculesB. Other proteins: small amount, including: the enzymatic, lipid transfer, signaling,and defense proteinsStructural proteinsBased on the enrichment in specific amino acids and the presence of repeated sequence motifs, they can be classified into two groups:(1) the glycine-rich proteins (GRPs)(2) the hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs)
4Hydroxyproline Proline Hydroxyproline Hydroxyproline: formed within the endoplasmic reticulum through hydroxylation of proline by the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase (PHD).ProlineHydroxyprolineα-KetoglutarateSuccinateMcDonough MA. (2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(26):9814-9
5Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) HRGPs: the major components of structural cell wall proteins. They all areglycosylated and contain hydroxyproline (Hyp).Protein class% Protein% SugarPeptide periodicityHyp-O-glycosylationRepetitive unitsProline-rich proteins (PRPs)80~1000~20Highly periodicLightly glycosylatedPro-Hyp-Val-Tyr-Lys motifExtensins~45~55PeriodicModerate glycosylatedSer-Hyp4 motifArabinogalactan proteins (AGPs)1~1090~99Least periodicHighly glycosylatedSer-Hyp-Hyp-Ara-Pro-Ara-Pro or Ara-Hyp motif
6The structure of PRPs, Extensins, and AGPs Buchanan, Gruissem and Jones. (2000) Biochemistry & Molecular Biology of Plants, chapter 2
7Proline-rich proteins (PRPs) PRPs contain repeated PPVX(K/T) motifs or its variants.PRPs can be glycosylated on certain Ser by Ser-α-galactosyltransferase or certain Hyp by Hyp-β-arabinosyltransferase.PRPs are implicated in the integrity of the cell wall, the structural maintenance of organs and defense reaction to pathogen infection.The expression of PRP genes is influenced by wounding, endogenous and fungal elicitors, ethylene, drought, and light.
8Proline-rich proteins (PRPs) PRPs display tissue- and cell-specific patterns of expression.Four members (OsPRP ) of OsPRP1 gene family showed expression divergence in spatial specificity.There are four PRPs in Arabidopsis: AtPRP1, AtPRP2, AtPRP3, and AtPRP4.
9Distribution of motifs The classification of Proline-rich proteins (PRPs)ClassMotif typeDistribution of motifsProline rich domainsGenesIPentapeptide PPVXK/T (X= H, Y or E)TandemC-terminalMtPRP2, SbPRP2IIPPYVN-terminalAtPRP1, AtPRP3IIIPPV or PV/IYKKPCPP (Cys-rich)DispersedAtPRP2, AtPRP4, OsPRP3IVPEPKWhole proteinOsPRP, TaPRPVPKPE, P(V/E)PPKOsPRP1.1-4
10The phylogenetic tree of Proline-rich proteins (PRPs)
11The approaches to study PRPs Immunolocalization: to verify the tissue location of PRPsBattaglia M. (2007) Planta 225(5):Northern Blot or RT-PCR: identify PRP genes are highlyexpressed in which part or developmental stage of plantMenke U. (2000) Plant Physiol 122(3): 677–686Gothandam KM. (2010) Plant Mol Biol 72(1-2):125-35C. Generation of T-DNA overexpression or knockout mutantsWang R. (2006) J Exp Bot 57(11):Gothandam KM. (2010) Plant Mol Biol 72(1-2):125-35
12OsPRP3, a flower specific proline-rich protein of rice, determines extracellular matrix structure of floral organs and its overexpression confers cold-toleranceKodiveri Muthukalianan Gothandam • Easwaran Nalini • Sivashanmugam Karthikeyan • Jeong Sheop Shin
13Expression analysis of OsPRP3 OsActin, rice actin used as a positive controlExpression analysis of OsPRP3OsPRP3 transcript was accumulated in flower and not in leaf.
14Expression analysis of OsPRP3 Different developmental stages of flower:1 young flower; 2 immature flower; 3 mature flowerExpression analysis of OsPRP3OsPRP3 was highly expressed in mature flower.
15Generation of overexpression mutants RB and LB, the right and left border of the T-DNA; Ubi, Ubiquitin promoter; Tnos, nos terminator; hph, hygromycin phosphotransferase.Generation of overexpression mutants1–9 Individual overexpressed transgenic plants; WT, wild type leaf.Leaves from overexpression transgenic plants accumulated the OsPRP3 transcript at higher level.
16Generation of knockout mutants OsPRP3 cDNA clone was subcloned into both sides of the GUS linker in antisense and sense orientations; NPTII, Kanamycin resistance gene; HPT, hygromycin resistance gene.Gus linker, the expression of the trigger dsRNA; 1–10, Individual RNAi transgenic plants; WT, wild type flower.Flowers from RNAi plants showed either suppression or a complete knockout of the gene transcription.
17OsPRP3 protein expression among these mutants Top panel, the immunoblot probed with OsPRP3 specific antibody. Bottom panel, the corresponding SDS–PAGE gel (silver stained). L leaf; F flowerOsPRP3 protein was expressed in the leaf of the overexpression plant, but the proteins was absent in the flower of the knockout plant.
18Where is the OsPRP3 localized? A, Immunolocalization of OsPRP3 in the leaves from the overexpression transgenic; B, the wild-type plants. CH Chloroplast; CW cell wallOsPRP3 localized on cell wall, and it is a cell wall protein.
19Cold treatmentPhenotype overexpression transgenic and wild type plants grown at 4°C.Overexpression transgenic plant was more tolerant to the cold stress than the wild type plant.
20Cold-toleranceCold-regulated genesExpression analysis of cold regulated genes in rice leaves after 0, 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days under 4°C cold-stress.Increased OsPRP3 did not alter transcript levels of these cold inducible genes.
21Cold-stress assayReal-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of OsPRP3 in 4°C cold treated leaves.OsPRP3 mRNA level in the cold-treated transgenic plants was increased constantly.
22Structural injuries caused by cold treatment Upper, cross section of control (untreated); Lower, cold-treated transgenic (overexpression); Right, magnification of mesophyll cells. UE upper epidermis; LE lower epidermis; VB vascular bundle; MC mesophyll cells; CP chloroplast.Overexpression plant leaves retain the cell wall integrity.
23Structural injuries caused by cold treatment Upper, cold treated wild type; Lower, cold treated (RNAi) leaves; Right, magnification of mesophyll cells. Arrows indicates the mesophyll cells that lost their cell wall.Wild type and RNAi plant leaves lost their cell wall integrity.
24Characterization of OsPRP3 RNAi transgenic plants WTosprp3Left, spikelet of RNAi plant; Inset box, magnification of an abnormal flower; Right, wild type.
25Characterization of OsPRP3 RNAi transgenic plants WTosprp3Tetrazolium staining of anther.The anther of the mutant flower produced non-viable pollen.
26Characterization of OsPRP3 RNAi transgenic plants WTOsPRP3osprp3Anther locule at micropsore stage of anther development. ep epidermis; ms microspore; t tapetum.The anther of the knockout mutant did not contain tapetum.
27Characterization of OsPRP3 RNAi transgenic plants WTOsPRP3osprp3Magnification of the interlocking of lemma and palea. le lemma; pa palea; ep epidermis; sl sclerenchyma layer; vb vascular bundle.
28Characterization of OsPRP3 RNAi transgenic plants WTOsPRP3osprp3Palea histology showing different cell layers. ep epidermis; sl sclerenchyma layer; ie inner epidermis.The knockout plant showed a severe reduction in sclerenchyma layer and inner epidermis.
29Summary OsPRP3 was flower-specific. OsPRP3 is a cell wall protein of rice flower.OsPRP3 confers cold tolerance by stabilizing the cell wall integrity.OsPRP3 plays a crucial role in determining the extracellular matrix structure of anther, palea and lemma.