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Tools, Technologies and Inventions through the years

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1 Tools, Technologies and Inventions through the years
Grade 5 : Technology & Engineering Conceptual Strand Society benefits when engineers apply scientific discoveries to design materials and processes that develop into enabling technologies. Guiding Question How do science concepts, engineering skills, and applications of technology improve the quality of life?

2 State Performance Indicators
Grade Level Expectations GLE 0507.T/E.1 Describe how tools, technology, and inventions help to answer questions and solve problems. GLE 0507.T/E.2 Recognize that new tools, technology, and inventions are always being developed. GLE 0507.T/E.3 Identify appropriate materials, tools, and machines that can extend or enhance the ability to solve a specified problem. GLE 0507.T/E.4 Recognize the connection between scientific advances, new knowledge, and the availability of new tools and technologies. GLE 0507.T/E.5 Apply a creative design strategy to solve a particular problem generated by societal needs and wants. Checks for Understanding 0507.T/E.1 Explain how different inventions and technologies impact people and other living organisms. 0507.T/E.2 Design a tool or a process that addresses an identified problem caused by human activity. 0507.T/E.3 Determine criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of a solution to a specified problem. 0507.T/E.4 Evaluate an invention that solves a problem and determine ways to improve the design. State Performance Indicators SPI 0507.T/E.1 Select a tool, technology, or invention that was used to solve a human problem. SPI 0507.T/E.2 Recognize the connection between a scientific advance and the development of a new tool or technology.

3 History The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques. These inventions have enabled people to create and accomplish many new things. Technological artifacts are products of a society’s economy, a force for economic growth, and a large part of everyday life. Technological innovations affect, and are affected by, a society's cultural traditions.

4 Why? The invention of tools and techniques is evidence of a society’s ability to solve problems that were encountered in every day life.

5 What is a tool? A tool is a device or a piece of equipment that typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a task or enables the accomplishment of a task not otherwise possible. The most basic tools are simple machines. When particularly intended for domestic use, a tool is often called a utensil.

6 Types of Tools Cutting tools, such as the knife, scissors or an axe, are wedge-shaped implements that produce a shearing force along a narrow face. Why do you think a knife is a necessary tool? For example, if you were stranded by yourself on a desert island, would you want a knife? Why?

7 Discuss it… Would you need a knife to make a shelter?
Would you need a knife to help with your food? What other kinds of things would you be able to do with a knife? What would you do to improvise without one? Could you cut pieces of trees or leaves? How could you catch a fish and cut it open to clean it? What if you caught an animal to eat like a rabbit – could you use its fur or meat without a knife? Could you use a sharp rock or file the end of a stick down to a spear to substitute for a knife?

8 Types of tools Moving tools, move large and small things. All these tools move items by some kind of force. for example: Concentrating force tools (like the hammer moves a nail, or the maul moves a wedge.) These operate by applying physical compression to a surface. In the case of the screwdriver, the force is sideways and called torque. Writing implements deliver a fluid to a surface via compression to activate the ink cartridge. Grabbing and twisting nuts and blots with pliers, a glove, or a wrench Inclined planes, wedges and pulleys help move large items.

9 Discuss it… Without tools that concentrate force such as hammers or pliers, what chores would be very difficult if not impossible? Have you ever built anything with wood? Did you use a hammer or screwdriver? Have you ever tried to remove a screw or nail without a screwdriver or hammer? What do you think people did before hammers? What problems did they have? Building a house? They may have used rocks. They probably bashed their fingers or broke the rocks. The hammer also takes advantage of the lever, so they would have had to use more force.

10 Types of tools Guiding and measuring tools include the ruler, set square, and straightedge. When do you use these types of tools? How do they help? If you had only one piece of paper and pen and had to draw a perfect square, would you want a ruler? Why?

11 Types of tools Shaping tools, such as moulds, jigs, trowels, caulk, and concrete help us by making consistent and reliable shapes that fit together well and are sturdy. When do you use these types of tools? How do they help? Would you want to put a swimming pool in your backyard without shaping tools? What kinds of problems would you have?

12 Types of tools Fastening tools, such as welders, rivet guns, nail guns, glue guns, and glue help us by fastening things together. When do you use tools like these? How do they help you? Imagine driving a car that was put together without any fastening tools…would you want to? Why or why not?

13 Early Civilizations and tools
Many sociologists and anthropologists have created social theories dealing with social and cultural evolution. Some declare technological progress to be the primary factor driving the development of human civilization. In other words, societies advance when their technologies advance. There were three main time periods or ages when tools were the main technological development: The Stone Age, The Bronze Age and the Iron Age.

14 The Stone Age The first tool-makers!
This period of time is called the Stone Age because these very early men created tools from stone. The Stone Age ran from about 2 million years ago to about 10,000 years ago.

15 Why did they need tools? Humans did not have strong claws to help them fight. They could not out run saber-toothed tigers or cave lions. Man had to get smart to survive! At this time, man began creating stone tools to help live more comfortably, and to better protect themselves against the many carnivore (meat eating) animals of the time.

16 How did they live during the Stone Age?
They followed food sources, and set up camp as needed. They sheltered under cliffs, whenever possible. You might think they would look for caves to spend the night, but caves quite often had dangerous occupants, just as they do today. Although this group made stone tools and weapons, these weapons were still pretty basic. Their main diet was probably fruits, roots, nuts and vegetables that they found growing wild. Small groups banded together for protection and efficiency. The size of the group depended upon the amount of food available. Groups would disband and move on, as food required.

17 Since they did not have fire-making skills, they had to wait until they found something burning from natural causes, set aflame, for example, from a lightening strike. A campfire had to be carefully watched, because if the fire went out, they did not know how to start it again. The area around the campfire was probably used as a sleeping area. A roaring campfire would keep most wild animals away, as most are afraid of fire. When they broke camp, they probably attempted to bring their fire with them by carrying several lit branches, with which to start a new campfire when they stopped again. If their branches went out, they did without fire until they found something burning somewhere.

18 200,000 years later… Man learns to make FIRE!!!
They were probably a bit startled when they saw what they had created, little knowing that the invention of fire would change life dramatically!  DISCUSS: How do you think the ability to make fire changed life?

19 What’s the big deal? Why was the ability to able to make fire so important? As man had already discovered, most animals were afraid of fire, so a roaring campfire gave protection to the group or tribe. They no longer had to shelter out of the wind, unless they chose to do so. If their fire went out, they could relight it. They could choose where they camped. On a hot night, if they could find a relatively safe place, a breeze might feel good. Control of fire made moving into colder regions possible, as fire they could count on would provide them with warmth. It also changed the way they prepared food. These people began to cook their food consistently. Food that is cooked is more secure from disease and much softer to eat. As a result, it would have been easier for the young and the old to survive.

20 A collection of stone age tools:
Can you guess which tools were used for what?

21 Discuss… How do you think it happened that the first stone tool was used or made? What problem do you think someone may have had that they solved with a stone tool? What kinds of things could be done with the help of stone tools that could not be done before? How could stone tools be made better?

22 The Bronze Age The Stone Age developed into the Bronze Age after radical changes in agricultural technology which included: development of agriculture (people began to grow crops), animal domestication (people began to raise animals), and the adoption of permanent settlements (people began to stay in one area). During this period in the development of technology is when metals were first used regularly in the manufacture of tools and weapons.

23 Mining, smelting, and casting became organized efforts.

24 Can you guess which tools were used for what?
Bronze Age Tools Can you guess which tools were used for what?

25 Discuss… Why would bronze tools not be possible to develop in a nomadic society? What made bronze tools better than stone tools? What kinds of things could be done easier with bronze tools than with stone tools? What could improve bronze tools?

26 The Iron Age The Iron Age involved the adoption of iron smelting technology. It generally replaced bronze, and made it possible to produce tools which were stronger and cheaper to make than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last major step before the development of written language. Also developed during the Iron Age was a coin system.

27 Can you guess which tools were used for what?
Iron Age Tools Can you guess which tools were used for what?

28 Ancient civilizations
It was the growth of the ancient civilizations which produced the greatest advances in technology and engineering, advances which stimulated other societies to adopt new ways of living and governance. Let’s see what these ancient civilizations came up with: Egypt, China, Greece, and India.

29 Ancient Egyptians The Egyptians invented and used many simple machines, such as the ramp to aid construction processes. How did this allow them to build bigger and better buildings?

30 Ancient Egyptians They were among the first to extract gold by large-scale mining using fire-setting, and the first recognizable map. Egyptian paper, made from papyrus, and pottery was mass produced and exported throughout the Mediterranean basin.

31 India India is notable for its early application of city planning and sanitation technologies. Cites in the Indus Valley offer some of the first examples of closed gutters, public baths, and communal granaries. India was also at the forefront of seafaring technology . Ship construction is vividly described in an ancient Indian text on Shipbuilding.

32 India, cont’d. Indian construction and architecture suggests an understanding of materials engineering, hydrology, and sanitation. Ancient Indian culture was also pioneering in its use of vegetable dyes, cultivating plants including indigo and cinnabar. Many of the dyes were used in art and sculpture. The use of perfumes demonstrates some knowledge of chemistry, particularly distillation and purification processes.

33 China The Chinese made many first-known discoveries and developments. Major technological contributions from China include early seismological detectors, matches, paper, the double-action piston pump, cast iron, the iron plough, the wheelbarrow, the suspension bridge, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the propeller, the crossbow, and gun powder. Other Chinese discoveries and inventions include: the paddle wheel boat, block printing and movable type, phosphorescent paint, chain drive, the spinning wheel, and solid rocket fuel!

34 Greece Greek engineers invented many technologies and improved upon pre-existing technologies. They were unique in their ability to combine scientific research with the development of new technologies. Heron of Alexandria invented a basic steam engine, watermill and windmill. Archimedes invented several machines. One example is the Archimedean screw. Other technologies invented by Greek scientists include the ballistae, and primitive analog computers like the Antikythera mechanism and the piston pump. Greek architects were responsible for the first true domes, and were the first to explore the Golden ratio and its relationship with geometry and architecture.

35 Greece, cont‘d. Other Greek inventions include torsion catapults, pneumatic catapults, crossbows, cranes, organs, the keyboard mechanism, gears, differential gears, screws, refined parchment, showers, dry docks, diving bells, odometer and astrolabes. In architecture, Greek engineers constructed monumental lighthouses and devised the first central heating systems. The Tunnel of Eupalinos is the earliest tunnel in history which has been excavated with a scientific approach from both ends. Automata like vending machines, automatic doors and many other ingenious devices were first built by Greeks.

36 Moving into current times…
From ancient civilizations until now, there have been many inventions, discoveries, and development of technologies. Many different cultures have had significant impacts upon technological advances. In current society, when man is faced with a problem, he naturally searches for an answer. If he can not find one, he will create one using current knowledge.

37 What about you? What problem or situation do you encounter in your life for which you would like a tool? Work? (do laundry?) Transportation? (beam me up?) Sickness? (an apple a day?) Play? (what responsibilities?) ? (what do you dream about?)

38 What problem do you encounter for which you’d create a tool to fix?
Write about it: Second Paragraph: Describe the tool you’ve created. Third Paragraph: How does this tool “fix” your problem? Introductory Paragraph: What problem do you encounter for which you’d create a tool to fix? Conclusion Paragraph: Restate your problem and solution. End with an expression of your feelings of how it would be if you could really do this. Fourth Paragraph: How does this tool change life as you know it? For example, would it be something lots of people would want, or just you?

39 Resources

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