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Why Arent peak experiences consistent? Why Arent peak experiences consistent? Why cant we vinify by recipe? Why cant we vinify by recipe? Why does 10.

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Presentation on theme: "Why Arent peak experiences consistent? Why Arent peak experiences consistent? Why cant we vinify by recipe? Why cant we vinify by recipe? Why does 10."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Why Arent peak experiences consistent? Why Arent peak experiences consistent? Why cant we vinify by recipe? Why cant we vinify by recipe? Why does 10 ppt TCA cause astringency? Why does 10 ppt TCA cause astringency? Is subjectivity arbitrary? Is subjectivity arbitrary?

3 Contemporary Wine Sensory Assessment Consumer focus groups Consumer focus groups Difference testing Difference testing Quality scoring Quality scoring –Davis 20-pt criteria sum –Parker 100-pt subjective scale Criterion-based descriptive scaling Criterion-based descriptive scaling –invented attribute drivers –linear modeling –Factor analysis mapping

4 Contemporary Wine Sensory Assessment Measures behavior rather than cognition Measures behavior rather than cognition Low R 2 s: Who says drivers drive? Low R 2 s: Who says drivers drive? Group statistics are a blunt instrument which obscures shared experience Group statistics are a blunt instrument which obscures shared experience Weak non-linear modeling Weak non-linear modeling Alpha testing Alpha testing –high Type II Error (false negatives) –very limited granularity for tuning No sensory standards for holistic drivers: No sensory standards for holistic drivers: –Harmony, grace, mood, aggressivity, etc.

5 What is wine ???????...bottled poetry. Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Louis Stevenson It puckers your mouth. –Art Buchwald the beverage of moderation The blood of Christ A fate worse than death! Susan B. Anthony Sunshine held together by water -Galileo The most gentle and efficaceous of medicines Louis Pasteur Wisdom and wit to the wise -Archimedes Wine is proof that God loves us and desires us to be happy. Benjamin Franklin An expression of place

6 ApollonianvsDionysian

7 German Mosel German Mosel Oz Shiraz freshmature puresexy focused fruitintegrated voice deliciousprofound crispround cleanmysterious leanplush deepbroad energizedmuscular beautifulvisceral loves sunlightloves fire & moonlight

8 Our Goals are the same as those of fine cuisine: –Visceral enjoyment of flavors integrated into a refined structure. –Memorable taste expression from careful farming in living soil. –Science is just a tool. Organized knowledge is not our goal. Our work is always fundamentally mysterious. Winegrowing is just a specialized type of cooking!

9 What is GrapeCraft? The practical art of touching the human soul with the soul of a place by rendering its grapes into liquid music.

10 In a nutshell: Less theory… more technique!

11 Shared attributes of wine and music Strong visceral appeal Strong visceral appeal –Revenues from music exceed pharmaceuticals –There are no $100 beers Non-linear consonance and dissonance (sweet spots) Non-linear consonance and dissonance (sweet spots)

12 1999 CSU Fresno Syrah : 26% of the wine was reduced to 10.1% for blending 0.1% alcohol increments 31 wines between 15.5% and 12.5% v/v EtOH n = 22 judges. Acclimation voting preference frequencies (Figure 1) Four points of harmonious balance obtained Free associations descriptive analysis (Table 2)

13 *** P 2 analysis of observed vs. expected: " < 0.1 % (Very Highly Significant)

14 Table 2 Judge descriptors for Syrah sweet spots 18.0% (untreated) Hot, astringent, low fruit expression 15.0 Rich, alcoholic, leathery, complex, Chateauneuf-du-Pape Jammy, black pepper, smooth Elegant, balanced, long finish 13.3 Clean, blueberry, tart

15 Shared attributes of wine and music Strong visceral appeal Strong visceral appeal –Revenues from music exceed pharmaceuticals –There are no $100 beers Non-linear consonance and dissonance (sweet spots) Non-linear consonance and dissonance (sweet spots) Strongly shared sense of harmony Strongly shared sense of harmony Broad disparity of stylistic preference Broad disparity of stylistic preference Emotion mapping Emotion mapping –resonance demonstration Simultaneity of immediate, proximate and root influences Simultaneity of immediate, proximate and root influences

16 Listeners background expectation of musical genres Performer Composer Instrumental Composition MUSICAL APPRECIATION STYLE

17 Tasters background expectation of historical genres Origin Winemaker Varietal Composition WINE APPRECIATION STYLE

18 Clinical Tools for Cognitive Musicology Behavioral studies of brain injuries Behavioral studies of brain injuries Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnetic Resonance Imaging Electro Encephalography Electro Encephalography Positron Emission Tomography Positron Emission Tomography

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20 Music Cognition neurological process mapping identifies the following distinct mental systems: Logical processing Logical processing Sensory processing Sensory processing Motor processing Motor processing Visualization Visualization –(daydreaming) Emotional processing Emotional processing –Pleasure system –Aversion system Memory Memory

21 Logical processing Pitch recognition Pitch recognition Timbre identification Timbre identification Meter determination Meter determination Melody processing Melody processing Lyrics processing Lyrics processing Tonal context (pitch as) Tonal context (pitch as) Fault listening Fault listening Aroma notes Aroma notes Terroir distinction Terroir distinction Swirling rhythm Swirling rhythm Anticipation / sip Anticipation / sip Winemaking story Winemaking story Genre context Genre context Defects Defects Music Wine

22 Bakine, Edeline and Weinberger, 1999: Neuron tunings in the auditory cortex of guinea pigs can be re-tuned by a few minutes training. Neuron tunings in the auditory cortex of guinea pigs can be re-tuned by a few minutes training. Patterns endured for two months. Patterns endured for two months. Implications for winemaking: Consumers trained for panels may not reflect preferences of untrained consumers Consumers trained for panels may not reflect preferences of untrained consumers Winemakers trained to detect defects may develop enhanced perceptual sensitivity Winemakers trained to detect defects may develop enhanced perceptual sensitivity

23 Motor Processing Rhythm recognition and reproduction Rhythm recognition and reproduction Instrument operation Instrument operation –Learning –Reproduction from memory Swirl, sip, spit Swirl, sip, spit

24 Memory Functionality Short term Short term –Experiential –Computational Long term Implicit Long term Implicit –Procedural –Perceptual Priming Long Term Explicit Long Term Explicit –Episodic –Semantic Aroma & Flavor DEFECTS Swirl, sniff, spit I.D. EVENT RECALL sense of place

25 Emotional Processing Temporal melody emotional progression Temporal melody emotional progression –anticipation leading to resolution Intrinsic mood (underlying theme) Intrinsic mood (underlying theme)

26 N.M. Weinbergers case subject I.R.: Bilaterial damage to temporal lobes, auditory cortex Bilaterial damage to temporal lobes, auditory cortex I.Q. and general memory normal I.Q. and general memory normal No language difficulties No language difficulties No melody recognition or recollection No melody recognition or recollection Emotional reactions completely normal! Emotional reactions completely normal! Separate functionality of melody vs intrinsic mood

27 Wines dont have melodies but they do carry emotions!

28 Blues processing Males Females

29 Primary and Secondary Emotions

30 Emotional Shapes (Sentics, Manfred Clynes) LoveLust

31 Emotional Processing Temporal melody emotional progression Temporal melody emotional progression –anticipation leading to resolution Intrinsic mood (underlying theme) Intrinsic mood (underlying theme) Consonance processing cascade Consonance processing cascade –Reward system –Sympathetic nervous system (relax) –Euphoria Dissonance processing cascade Dissonance processing cascade –Parasympathetic system (alert to danger) –Limbic system (fight or flight)

32 Blood and Zatorre, 2001: PET scan imaging of subjects listening to musical intervals PET scan imaging of subjects listening to musical intervals C / E (perfect fifth) C / E (perfect fifth) –orbitofrontal area (part of Reward System) –area below corpus callosum (sympathetic?) C / C# C / C# –right parahypocampal gyrus (fight or flight)

33 Thalamus characterizes stimulus Stimulus

34 Thalamus characterizes stimulus DISSONANCE HARMONY Limbic System (danger) Frontal Lobes (Reward System) 0.1% Alcohol Difference!

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36 Winemaking Implications Borrow from musical approaches to quality Borrow from musical approaches to quality Exploration of wine cognitive processing Exploration of wine cognitive processing Map wine style emotions through music resonance Map wine style emotions through music resonance Consumer targeting based on cognitive stage Consumer targeting based on cognitive stage Increased reliance on trained experts and small groups to tune finished wines Increased reliance on trained experts and small groups to tune finished wines Greater emphasis on aesthetic training and crosstraining to evaluate holistic quality imperatives Greater emphasis on aesthetic training and crosstraining to evaluate holistic quality imperatives

37 Thank you for your kind attention.

38 Order your copy!


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