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An Introduction to Music 2 Contents Why living Music is so Important What is Music Fundamental Blocks for Music –Melody –Harmony –Rhythm.

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Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Music 2 Contents Why living Music is so Important What is Music Fundamental Blocks for Music –Melody –Harmony –Rhythm."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Introduction to Music

2 2 Contents Why living Music is so Important What is Music Fundamental Blocks for Music –Melody –Harmony –Rhythm –Lyrics* Mapping between key terms in Indian and western music Expressing Emotions through Music

3 3 Why live Music Human Brain has natural affinity towards music. A musical activity improves intellectual brain activity. Music skills enhance Self Confidence, Social Bonding and Success in society. Playing music helps in bringing down Stress levels and improves overall health and well being. Music - Essential Life Component Actively playing music (living music) is infinitely more enjoyable than passively listening to it Every Human being has the potential to evolve into a Musical genius with proper training and Practice From Loving to Living Music

4 4 Music – Organized Sound evoking Emotions OrganizedSound evoking Emotions Rhythmic patterns Melodic Phrases Harmonic Progressions Pitch / Frequency Timbre / Voice Loudness / Dynamics Wide melodic range, Consistent strong rhythm, Major Chords Narrow melodic range, Slow rhythm, Minor Chords Wide melodic range, Rhythm variations, Mixed Chords

5 5 Melody Building Blocks of Music Musical Note IntensityTimbre Harmony Chord Progressions Rhythm Meter Tempo Scale Phrase Pitch Frequency Duration Beats Lyrics Syllables Rhymes Song / Composition

6 6 Musical Note Duration tells how long the note lasts or the Time Value of the note This is usually expressed in Beats (measure of time in music) Duration Auditory property helping sound to be perceived as higher or lower Depends on Frequency, expressed in Hertz (cycles per second) Pitch A sound of a specific frequency and pitch is referred to as a Musical Tone. In addition to these Tone has following Attributes Intensity: A measure of loudness Tones of specific frequency are referred to as Musical Notes and have associated names. E.g. Notes, C, D, E, F in western music Tone and Note Whole note 4 Beats Half Note 2 Beats Quarter Note 1 Beat Eighth Note half Beat Time value of Notes Higher Notes Lower Notes Quarter Note A on Staff = 440 Hz

7 7 Melody – Musical Scales A Musical Scale consists of a collection of Notes with pre defined Pitch distances Notes with Frequency difference of two times are said to be an Octave apart. In a commonly used ‘Equal Tempered’ scale, the Notes are divided equally into several parts, usually 12 The Ratio of Frequencies of adjacent intervals is fixed – 1.059 approx (12th root of 2) Each Step is referred to as a Semitone (S) and 2 steps as Tone (T) The Note A above middle C with frequency of 440 Hz is used as Tuning Standard in Western Music Overview Middle C (C4) Music Scale shown over 12 Equal Temperaments T 261.5 Hz 523 Hz 392 Hz 440 Hz 349 Hz S D E F G A B C5

8 8 Melody – Musical Scales C D E F G A B C Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa Do Re Me Fa So La Ti Do C D E F G A B C Guitar Piano Staff Notation English Notes Indian Notes Spanish Notes Most of the Music systems in the world use Diatonic Scale as the basic framework for musical Compositions which follows same pattern of Pitch distances T T S T T T S C 1 2 3 T D E F G A B C 4 5 6 7 8 S Pitch gaps in a Diatonic Scale Diatonic Notes Names in various Music Systems

9 9 Instrument Ranges C4 Middle C C5 C3 C2 C1 C0 C6 C7 C8 Human Voice Guitar Bass Guitar Violin Concert Piano Every Instrument has a limited Range of Pitches it can play Most Vocalists have a Vocal Range of 2-3 Octaves. Some people can go upto 3.5 or even 4 Sound of same frequency from different Sources sounds very similar even if tone quality (or timbre) is very different. Sound of Frequency in factors of 2 (Octaves) sounds very similar Octave

10 10 Musical Phrases Example of a common Melody Twin kle Twin kle lit tle star how I won der what you are Melody is created using different patterns of Notes in a Musical Scale Musical phrase is a unit in Composition which has complete musical sense A melody typically consists of several consecutive musical phrases. Phrases usually culminate into a more or less definite cadence. Cadence is musical melodic or harmonic configuration that creates a sense of Resolution

11 11 Harmony Example of C Chord on Piano and guitar C Chord = C + E + G Consonance is a chord or Interval that sounds pleasant to most people and appears to be at Rest. Consonances are generally points of arrival, Resolution or Rest. Most Harmonies and Melodies end on Consonance Chords Dissonance appears to be Unpleasant and at Unrest Consonance and Dissonance Combinations of certain notes sound pleasant and certain others sound annoying (dissonant) based on harmonic interaction between different frequencies Simultaneous notes of different pitches produce Chords, which provide fundamental building block for Harmony in Western Music The study of Harmony involves chords and their construction and chord progressions.

12 12 Chord Progressions I - IV - V – V I - I - IV – V I - IV - I – V I - IV - V - IV 3 Chord Progressions I - V - I I - IV - V - I Circle Progressions I - I - I - I IV - IV - I – I V - V - I - I Blues Changes Examples of Chord Progressions Series of Chords that establish a Tonal Function for each Chord to produce Harmonic Flow Change of Chord, or "chord change", generally occurs on an accented Beat, Most Common Chords consist of Triads (3 notes) Formed using alternate notes. E.g. CEG = C Chord, GBD = G Chord Chords created using Bass notes of various Scale Degrees of the Tonic (Key) are often referred to with equivalent Roman Numerals. E.g. in the Key of C, C Chord = I, F Chord = IV, G Chord = V

13 13 Rhythm Organization of music into regularly recurring measures of stressed and unstressed "beats“ Indicated in Western music notation by a time signature and bar-lines. Meter Speed or Pace of a given piece Can affect the mood and difficulty of a piece. Usually expressed in Beats per minute Tempo Rhythm is regulated succession of strong and weak elements and made up of sounds and silences. The strong and weak elements (sounds and silences) are put together to form a pattern of sounds which gets repeated A rhythm has a steady beat, but it may also have different kinds of beats. Rhythm Basic Unit of time that can be audible Also called Beat level Repeating series of identical distinct periods Metric Level Whole note 4 Beats Half note 2 Beats Quarter note 1 Beat Eighth note 1/2 Beat Beat LevelDivision Level Multiple Levels

14 14 Expressing Emotions through Music EmotionMelodyRhythmHarmony ( Chord/ Tonality) Happiness, Excitement Wide RangeConsistent, Strong, Loud, Fast Major Love, Affection, Tenderness MediumGentle, Medium Tempo Major SadnessflatSlowMinor TranquillityflatSmooth, GentleMajor/Minor Triumph, Ecstasy Wide JumpsEnergetic, Loud, Fast Power Chord This is only a Rough Guideline. The infinitely complex musical structures and patterns allow Infinitely Complex Emotions to be Expressed with Music

15 15 We welcome your involvement in living music THANK YOU

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