Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byRiley Cheers Modified over 2 years ago

1
Universality of Consensus Companion slides for The Art of Multiprocessor Programming by Maurice Herlihy & Nir Shavit

2
Turing Computability A mathematical model of computation Computable = Computable on a T-Machine Art of Multiprocessor Programming

3
Shared-Memory Computability Model of asynchronous concurrent computation Computable = Wait-free/Lock-free computable on a multiprocessor cache shared memory cache 3 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

4
Consensus Hierarchy 1 Read/Write Registers, Snapshots… 2 getAndSet, getAndIncrement, … compareAndSet,… Art of Multiprocessor Programming

5
Who Implements Whom? 1 Read/Write Registers, Snapshots… 2 getAndSet, getAndIncrement, … compareAndSet,… no 5 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

6
Hypothesis 1 Read/Write Registers, Snapshots… 2 getAndSet, getAndIncrement, … compareAndSet,… yes? 6 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

7
Theorem: Universality Consensus is universal From n-thread consensus build a –Wait-free –Linearizable –n-threaded implementation –Of any sequentially specified object 7 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

8
Proof Outline A universal construction –From n-consensus objects –And atomic registers Any wait-free linearizable object –Not a practical construction –But we know where to start looking … 8 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

9
Like a Turing Machine This construction –Illustrates what needs to be done –Optimization fodder Correctness, not efficiency –Why does it work? (Asks the scientist) –How does it work? (Asks the engineer) –Would you like fries with that? (Asks the liberal arts major) 9 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

10
A Generic Sequential Object public interface SeqObject { public abstract Response apply(Invocation invoc); } 10 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

11
A Generic Sequential Object public interface SeqObject { public abstract Response apply(Invocation invoc); } Push:5, Pop:null 11 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

12
Invocation public class Invoc { public String method; public Object[] args; } 12 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

13
Invocation public class Invoc { public String method; public Object[] args; } Method name 13 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

14
Invocation public class Invoc { public String method; public Object[] args; } Arguments 14 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

15
A Generic Sequential Object public interface SeqObject { public abstract Response apply(Invocation invoc); } 15 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

16
A Generic Sequential Object public interface SeqObject { public abstract Response apply(Invocation invoc); } OK, 4 16 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

17
Response public class Response { public Object value; } 17 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

18
Response public class Response { public Object value; } Return value 18 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

19
19 Universal Concurrent Object public interface SeqObject { public abstract Response apply(Invocation invoc); } A universal concurrent object is linearizable to the generic sequential object 19 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

20
Start with Lock-Free Universal Construction First Lock-free: infinitely often some method call finishes. Then Wait-Free: each method call takes a finite number of steps to finish 20 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

21
Naïve Idea Consensus object stores reference to cell with current state Each thread creates new cell –computes outcome, –tries to switch pointer to its outcome Sadly, no … –consensus objects can be used once only 21 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

22
Naïve Idea enq deq 22 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

23
head Naïve Idea deq Concurrent Object enq ? Decide which to apply using consensus No good. Each thread can use consensus object only once 23 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

24
Once is not Enough? public T decide(T value) { propose(value); Ball ball = queue.deq(); if (ball == Ball.RED) return proposed[i]; else return proposed[1-i]; } Solved one-shot 2-consensus. Not clear how to reuse or reread … Queue based consensus 24 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

25
Improved Idea: Linked-List Representation enq tail deq Each node contains a fresh consensus object used to decide on next operation 25 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

26
Universal Construction Object represented as –Initial Object State –A Log: a linked list of the method calls 26 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

27
Universal Construction Object represented as –Initial Object State –A Log: a linked list of the method calls New method call –Find end of list –Atomically append call –Compute response by replaying log 27 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

28
Basic Idea Use one-time consensus object to decide next pointer All threads update actual next pointer based on decision –OK because they all write the same value Challenges –Lock-free means we need to worry what happens if a thread stops in the middle 28 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

29
public class Node implements java.lang.Comparable { public Invoc invoc; public Consensus decideNext; public Node next; public int seq; public Node(Invoc invoc) { invoc = invoc; decideNext = new Consensus () seq = 0; } Basic Data Structures 29 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

30
public class Node implements java.lang.Comparable { public Invoc invoc; public Consensus decideNext; public Node next; public int seq; public Node(Invoc invoc) { invoc = invoc; decideNext = new Consensus () seq = 0; } Basic Data Structures Standard interface for class whose objects are totally ordered 30 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

31
public class Node implements java.lang.Comparable { public Invoc invoc; public Consensus decideNext; public Node next; public int seq; public Node(Invoc invoc) { invoc = invoc; decideNext = new Consensus () seq = 0; } Basic Data Structures the invocation 31 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

32
public class Node implements java.lang.Comparable { public Invoc invoc; public Consensus decideNext; public Node next; public int seq; public Node(Invoc invoc) { invoc = invoc; decideNext = new Consensus () seq = 0; } Basic Data Structures Decide on next node (next method applied to object) 32 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

33
public class Node implements java.lang.Comparable { public Invoc invoc; public Consensus decideNext; public Node next; public int seq; public Node(Invoc invoc) { invoc = invoc; decideNext = new Consensus () seq = 0; } Basic Data Structures Traversable pointer to next node (needed because you cannot repeatedly read a consensus object) 33 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

34
public class Node implements java.lang.Comparable { public Invoc invoc; public Consensus decideNext; public Node next; public int seq; public Node(Invoc invoc) { invoc = invoc; decideNext = new Consensus () seq = 0; } Basic Data Structures Seq number 34 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

35
public class Node implements java.lang.Comparable { public Invoc invoc; public Consensus decideNext; public Node next; public int seq; public Node(Invoc invoc) { invoc = invoc; decideNext = new Consensus () seq = 0; } Basic Data Structures Create new node for this method invocation 35 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

36
Universal Object head 123 decideNext (Consensus Object) Ptr to cell w/highest Seq Num Seq number, Invoc tail node next 4 36 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

37
Universal Object head 123 All threads repeatedly modify head…back to where we started? tail node 4 37 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

38
… The Solution head 123 tail node i 4 Make head an array Ptr to node at front Thread i updates location i Threads find head by finding Max of nodes pointed to by head array 38 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

39
Universal Object public class Universal { private Node[] head; private Node tail = new Node(); tail.seq = 1; for (int j=0; j < n; j++){ head[j] = tail } 39 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

40
Universal Object public class Universal { private Node[] head; private Node tail = new Node(); tail.seq = 1; for (int j=0; j < n; j++){ head[j] = tail } Head Pointers Array 40 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

41
Universal Object public class Universal { private Node[] head; private Node tail = new Node(); tail.seq = 1; for (int j=0; j < n; j++){ head[j] = tail } Tail is a sentinel node with sequence number 1 41 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

42
Universal Object public class Universal { private Node[] head; private Node tail = new Node(); tail.seq = 1; for (int j=0; j < n; j++){ head[j] = tail } Initially head points to tail 42 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

43
public static Node max(Node[] array) { Node max = array[0]; for (int i = 1; i < array.length; i++) if (max.seq < array[i].seq) max = array[i]; return max; } Find Max Head Value 43 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

44
public static Node max(Node[] array) { Node max = array[0]; for (int i = 0; i < array.length; i++) if (max.seq < array[i].seq) max = array[i]; return max; } Find Max Head Value Traverse the array 44 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

45
public static Node max(Node[] array) { Node max = array[0]; for (int i = 0; i < array.length; i++) if (max.seq < array[i].seq) max = array[i]; return max; } Find Max Head Value Compare the seq nums of nodes pointed to by the array 45 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

46
public static Node max(Node[] array) { Node max = array[0]; for (int i = 0; i < array.length; i++) if (max.seq < array[i].seq) max = array[i]; return max; } Find Max Head Value Return node with maximal sequence number 46 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

47
Universal Application Part I public Response apply(Invoc invoc) { int i = ThreadID.get(); Node prefer = new node(invoc); while (prefer.seq == 0) { Node before = Node.max(head); Node after = before.decideNext.decide(prefer); before.next = after; after.seq = before.seq + 1; head[i] = after; } … 47 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

48
Universal Application Part I public Response apply(Invoc invoc) { int i = ThreadID.get(); Node prefer = new node(invoc); while (prefer.seq == 0) { Node before = Node.max(head); Node after = before.decideNext.decide(prefer); before.next = after; after.seq = before.seq + 1; head[i] = after; } … Apply will have invocation as input and return the appropriate response 48 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

49
Universal Application Part I public Response apply(Invoc invoc) { int i = ThreadID.get(); Node prefer = new node(invoc); while (prefer.seq == 0) { Node before = Node.max(head); Node after = before.decideNext.decide(prefer); before.next = after; after.seq = before.seq + 1; head[i] = after; } … My id 49 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

50
Universal Application Part I public Response apply(Invoc invoc) { int i = ThreadID.get(); Node prefer = new node(invoc); while (prefer.seq == 0) { Node before = Node.max(head); Node after = before.decideNext.decide(prefer); before.next = after; after.seq = before.seq + 1; head[i] = after; } … My method call 50 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

51
Universal Application Part I public Response apply(Invoc invoc) { int i = ThreadID.get(); Node prefer = new node(invoc); while (prefer.seq == 0) { Node before = Node.max(head); Node after = before.decideNext.decide(prefer); before.next = after; after.seq = before.seq + 1; head[i] = after; } … As long as I have not been threaded into list 51 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

52
Universal Application Part I public Response apply(Invoc invoc) { int i = ThreadID.get(); Node prefer = new node(invoc); while (prefer.seq == 0) { Node before = Node.max(head); Node after = before.decideNext.decide(prefer); before.next = after; after.seq = before.seq + 1; head[i] = after; } … Head of list to which we will try to append 52 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

53
Universal Application Part I public Response apply(Invoc invoc) { int i = ThreadID.get(); Node prefer = new node(invoc); while (prefer.seq == 0) { Node before = Node.max(head); Node after = before.decideNext.decide(prefer); before.next = after; after.seq = before.seq + 1; head[i] = after; } Propose next node 53 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

54
Universal Application public Response apply(Invoc invoc) { int i = ThreadID.get(); Node prefer = new node(invoc); while (prefer.seq == 0) { Node before = Node.max(head); Node after = before.decideNext.decide(prefer); before.next = after; after.seq = before.seq + 1; head[i] = after; } Set next field to consensus winner 54 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

55
Universal Application Part I public Response apply(Invoc invoc) { int i = ThreadID.get(); Node prefer = new node(invoc); while (prefer.seq == 0) { Node before = Node.max(head); Node after = before.decideNext.decide(prefer); before.next = after; after.seq = before.seq + 1; head[i] = after; } … Set seq number (indicating node was appended) 55 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

56
Universal Application Part I public Response apply(Invoc invoc) { int i = ThreadID.get(); Node prefer = new node(invoc); while (prefer.seq == 0) { Node before = Node.max(head); Node after = before.decideNext.decide(prefer); before.next = after; after.seq = before.seq + 1; head[i] = after; } … add to head array so new head will be found 56 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

57
Part 2 – Compute Response nullenq( ) tail Reds method call … deq() enq( ) Return Private copy of object 57 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

58
Universal Application Part 2... //compute my response SeqObject MyObject = new SeqObject(); current = tail.next; while (current != prefer){ MyObject.apply(current.invoc); current = current.next; } return MyObject.apply(current.invoc); } 58 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

59
Universal Application Part II... //compute my response SeqObject MyObject = new SeqObject(); current = tail.next; while (current != prefer){ MyObject.apply(current.invoc); current = current.next; } return MyObject.apply(current.invoc); } Compute result by sequentially applying method calls in list to a private copy 59 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

60
Universal Application Part II... //compute my response SeqObject MyObject = new SeqObject(); current = tail.next; while (current != prefer){ MyObject.apply(current.invoc); current = current.next; } return MyObject.apply(current.invoc); } Start with copy of sequential object 60 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

61
Universal Application Part II... //compute my response SeqObject MyObject = new SeqObject(); current = tail.next; while (current != prefer){ MyObject.apply(current.invoc); current = current.next; } return MyObject.apply(current.invoc); } new method call appended after tail 61 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

62
Universal Application Part II... //compute my response SeqObject MyObject = new SeqObject(); current = tail.next; while (current != prefer){ MyObject.apply(current.invoc); current = current.next; } return MyObject.apply(current.invoc); } While my method call not linked … 62 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

63
Universal Application Part II... //compute my response SeqObject MyObject = new SeqObject(); current = tail.next; while (current != prefer){ MyObject.apply(current.invoc); current = current.next; } return MyObject.apply(current.invoc); } Apply current nodes method 63 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

64
Universal Application Part II... //compute my response SeqObject MyObject = new SeqObject(); current = tail.next; while (current != prefer){ MyObject.apply(current.invoc); current = current.next; } return MyObject.apply(current.invoc); } Return result after my method call applied 64 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

65
Correctness List defines linearized sequential history Thread returns its response based on list order 65 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

66
66 Lock-freedom Lock-free because –A thread moves forward in list –Can repeatedly fail to win consensus on real head only if another succeeds –Consensus winner adds node and completes within a finite number of steps 66 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

67
Wait-free Construction Lock-free construction + announce array Stores (pointer to) node in announce –If a thread doesnt append its node –Another thread will see it in array and help append it 67 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

68
Helping Announcing my intention –Guarantees progress –Even if the scheduler hates me –My method call will complete Makes protocol wait-free Otherwise starvation possible 68 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

69
… … Wait-free Construction head 123 tail i 4 announce Ptr to cell thread i wants to append i 69 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

70
public class Universal { private Node[] announce; private Node[] head; private Node tail = new node(); tail.seq = 1; for (int j=0; j < n; j++){ head[j] = tail; announce[j] = tail }; The Announce Array 70 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

71
public class Universal { private Node[] announce; private Node[] head; private Node tail = new node(); tail.seq = 1; for (int j=0; j < n; j++){ head[j] = tail; announce[j] = tail }; The Announce Array Announce array 71 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

72
public class Universal { private Node[] announce; private Node[] head; private Node tail = new node(); tail.seq = 1; for (int j=0; j < n; j++){ head[j] = tail; announce[j] = tail }; The Announce Array All entries initially point to tail 72 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

73
public Response apply(Invoc invoc) { int i = ThreadID.get(); announce[i] = new Node(invoc); head[i] = Node.max(head); while (announce[i].seq == 0) { … // while node not appended to list … } A Cry For Help 73 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

74
public Response apply(Invoc invoc) { int i = ThreadID.get(); announce[i] = new Node(invoc); head[i] = Node.max(head); while (announce[i].seq == 0) { … // while node not appended to list … } A Cry For Help Announce new method call, asking help from others 74 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

75
public Response apply(Invoc invoc) { int i = ThreadID.get(); announce[i] = new Node(invoc); head[i] = Node.max(head); while (announce[i].seq == 0) { … // while node not appended to list … } A Cry For Help Look for end of list 75 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

76
public Response apply(Invoc invoc) { int i = ThreadID.get(); announce[i] = new Node(invoc); head[i] = Node.max(head); while (announce[i].seq == 0) { … // while node not appended to list … } A Cry For Help Main loop, while node not appended (either by me or helper) 76 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

77
Main Loop Non-zero sequence # means success Thread keeps helping append nodes Until its own node is appended 77 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

78
while (announce[i].seq == 0) { Node before = head[i]; Node help = announce[(before.seq + 1 % n)]; if (help.seq == 0) prefer = help; else prefer = announce[i]; … Main Loop 78 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

79
while (announce[i].seq == 0) { Node before = head[i]; Node help = announce[(before.seq + 1 % n)]; if (help.seq == 0) prefer = help; else prefer = announce[i]; … Main Loop Keep trying until my cell gets a sequence number 79 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

80
while (announce[i].seq == 0) { Node before = head[i]; Node help = announce[(before.seq + 1 % n)]; if (help.seq == 0) prefer = help; else prefer = announce[i]; … Main Loop Possible end of list 80 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

81
while (announce[i].seq == 0) { Node before = head[i]; Node help = announce[(before.seq + 1 % n)]; if (help.seq == 0) prefer = help; else prefer = announce[i]; … Main Loop Whom do I help? 81 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

82
Altruism Choose a thread to help If that thread needs help –Try to append its node –Otherwise append your own Worst case –Everyone tries to help same pitiful loser –Someone succeeds 82 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

83
Help! When last node in list has sequence number k All threads check … –Whether thread k+1 mod n wants help –If so, try to append her node first 83 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

84
Help! First time after thread k+1 announces –No guarantees After n more nodes appended –Everyone sees that thread k+1 wants help –Everyone tries to append that node –Someone succeeds 84 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

85
Sliding Window Lemma After thread A announces its node No more than n other calls –Can start and finish –Without appending As node 85 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

86
Helping head Max head +1 = N+4 N+2 N+3 … announce Thread 4: Help me! 4 So all see and help append 4 tail 86 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

87
The Sliding Help Window head N+2 N+3 … announce 4 tail Help 3 Help Art of Multiprocessor Programming

88
while (announce[i].seq == 0) { Node before = head[i]; Node help = announce[(before.seq + 1 % n)]; if (help.seq == 0) prefer = help; else prefer = announce[i]; … Sliding Help Window In each main loop iteration pick another thread to help 88 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

89
while (announce[i].seq == 0) { Node before = head[i]; Node help = announce[(before.seq + 1 % n)]; if (help.seq == 0) prefer = help; else prefer = announce[i]; … Sliding Help Window Help if help required, but otherwise its all about me! 89 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

90
Rest is Same as Lock-free while (announce[i].seq == 0) { … Node after = before.decideNext.decide(prefer); before.next = after; after.seq = before.seq + 1; head[i] = after; } 90 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

91
Rest is Same as Lock-free while (announce[i].seq == 0) { … Node after = before.decideNext.decide(prefer); before.next = after; after.seq = before.seq + 1; head[i] = after; } Decide next node to be appended 91 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

92
Rest is Same as Lock-free while (announce[i].seq == 0) { … Node after = before.decideNext.decide(prefer); before.next = after; after.seq = before.seq + 1; head[i] = after; } Update next based on decision 92 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

93
Rest is Same as Lock-free while (announce[i].seq == 0) { … Node after = before.decideNext.decide(prefer); before.next = after; after.seq = before.seq + 1; head[i] = after; } Tell world that node is appended 93 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

94
Finishing the Job Once threads node is linked The rest is again the same as in lock- free alg Compute the result by sequentially applying the method calls in the list to a private copy of the object starting from the initial state 94 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

95
Then Same Part II... //compute my response SeqObject MyObject = new SeqObject(); current = tail.next; while (current != announce[i]){ MyObject.apply(current.invoc); current = current.next; } return MyObject.apply(current.invoc); } 95 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

96
Universal Application Part II... //compute my response SeqObject MyObject = new SeqObject(); current = tail.next; while (current != prefer){ MyObject.apply(current.invoc); current = current.next; } return MyObject.apply(current.invoc); } Return result after applying my method 96 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

97
Shared-Memory Computability Wait-free/Lock-free computable = Solving n-consensus Universal Object 97 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

98
public class RMWRegister { private int value; public boolean getAndSet(int update) { int prior = this.value; this.value = update; return prior; } Swap (getAndSet) not Universal 98 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

99
public class RMWRegister { private int value; public boolean getAndSet(int update) { int prior = this.value; this.value = update; return prior; } Consensus number 2 Swap (getAndSet) not Universal 99 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

100
public class RMWRegister { private int value; public boolean getAndSet(int update) { int prior = this.value; this.value = update; return prior; } Not universal for 3 threads Swap (getAndSet) not Universal 100 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

101
public class RMWRegister { private int value; public boolean compareAndSet(int expected, int update) { int prior = this.value; if (this.value == expected) { this.value = update; return true; } return false; }} CompareAndSet is Universal 101 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

102
public class RMWRegister { private int value; public boolean compareAndSet(int expected, int update) { int prior = this.value; if (this.value == expected) { this.value = update; return true; } return false; }} CompareAndSet is Universal Consensus number 102 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

103
public class RMWRegister { private int value; public boolean compareAndSet(int expected, int update) { int prior = this.value; if (this.value == expected) { this.value = update; return true; } return false; }} CompareAndSet is Universal Universal for any number of threads 103 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

104
104 On Older Architectures IBM 360 –testAndSet (getAndSet) NYU UltraComputer –getAndAdd (fetchAndAdd) Neither universal –Except for 2 threads 104 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

105
105 On Newer Architectures Intel x86, Itanium, SPARC –compareAndSet (CAS, CMPXCHG) Alpha AXP, PowerPC –Load-locked/store-conditional All universal –For any number of threads Trend is clear … 105 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

106
Practical Implications Any architecture that does not provide a universal primitive has inherent limitations You cannot avoid locking for concurrent data structures … 106 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

107
107 Shared-Memory Computability Wait-free/Lock-free computable = Threads with methods that solve n- consensus Universal Object 107 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

108
Principles to Practice We saw how to define concurrent objects We discussed the computational power of our machine instructions Lets use these foundations as a basis for understanding the real world 108 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

109
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License.Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License You are free: –to Share to copy, distribute and transmit the work –to Remix to adapt the work Under the following conditions: –Attribution. You must attribute the work to The Art of Multiprocessor Programming (but not in any way that suggests that the authors endorse you or your use of the work). –Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same, similar or a compatible license. For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. The best way to do this is with a link to –http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/. Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the author's moral rights. 109 Art of Multiprocessor Programming

Similar presentations

© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google