Presentation on theme: "Jordan Lane. Three Processes Thermoforming Uses heat to deform a plastic sheet into a specific shape or around an object. The actual deformation requires."— Presentation transcript:
Three Processes Thermoforming Uses heat to deform a plastic sheet into a specific shape or around an object. The actual deformation requires added force or pressure, often in the form of a vacuum. Can be used to make hot tubs, water bottles, and plastic packaging Laser Marking Uses a laser to cut or engrave a material with a certain pattern. Can be used to make intricate sheet metal designs, plastic sheet designs and etching Electroplating Uses an electric current to coat a material, usually metal, with another desired metal. Common coating metals include nickel, stainless steel, copper, zinc and platinum. Can be used to finish wheel rims, door nobs, cheap metal trophies
Patents Thermoforming US 3011212 A: Shaping thermoplastic resinous sheets Focuses on forming of thermoplastic around particular dies with rolled edges as a finish Compensates for multiple geometries while still finishing the edge properly US 3258813 A: Pressure forming of plastic film Focuses on forming extremely thin plastic films. Adaptable to cold pressure forming and heated pressure forming US 7255552 B2: Method and device for thermoforming of containers Includes capabilities for different types of thermoforming Illustrates vacuum forming as well as thermal shaping with a moving mold Laser Marking US 8585956 B1: Systems and methods for laser marking work pieces Is capable of reproducing intricate patterns and pictures in work piece surface Has adjustable control over depth of engraving US 3745586 A: Laser writing Has the Ability to produce a grey scale Can even produce colors when working with the right materials US 4507536 A: Beam-machining method and apparatus Has the capability of controlling ion or particle acceleration energy and thus can control the depth and speed of cut Focuses on cutting brittle materials such as ceramics Electroplating CN 203096211 U: Metal nano-electroplating equipment A device and process for electroplating materials as a finish Focuses on the ability to plate non-metal and composite materials with metal finishes US 8551301 B2: Electroplating system with electroplating wheel Uses two solution areas with low communication between them The wheel allows for multiple small components to be coated at the same time US4687555 A: Apparatus for selectively plating electrical terminals Uses a rotating cylindrical mounting surface to coat multiple work pieces at a time Can coat small details without coating the entire work piece based upon setup, with electric terminals in mind
Thermoforming Sinotech.com Thermoforming is a secondary shaping process, the primary process being that which produces the sheet or film. Only thermoplastics can be thermoformed, since extruded sheets of thermosetting or elastomeric polymers have already been crosss-linked and cannot be softened by reheating. Common thermoforming plastics are polystyrene, cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate, ABS, PVC, acrylic (polymethylmethacrylate), polyethylene, and polypropylene. Tapplastics.com Relatively low forming pressures are needed and large size can be economically fabricated. Since the molds are exposed to relatively low forces, they can be made of inexpensive materials. Thermoforming is often selected for fabricating prototype and display parts due to its low tooling costs. However as part volumes increase, processes such as injection molding become more economical. Substech.com There are three types of thermoforming- Vacuum, Pressure and mechanical Mechanical provides to the most dimensional control of the three Laser Marking Troteclaser.com Common materials that are laser marked by way of removing of material include anodized aluminum, coated metals, foils and films, or laminates. In the staining method, the heat effect generated by the laser beam causes a chemical reaction in the material. Depending on the material composition, this will result in different color shades. For example, if a light plastic material is discolored during laser etching, soot particles may be produced that will result in a dark marking. Sintecoptronics Laser marking most commonly takes the form of an alphanumeric code imprinted on the surface of the product to indicate the date of manufacture, best-before, serial number etc. The way the waste heat is rejected (or gas cooling method) has a large influence on the laser system design. In principle, it can be performed by two possible methods. The first method is based on the automatic process of natural diffusion of the heated gas to the tube wall, which is the operating principle of the sealed, and slow axial flow lasers. The second method is based on the gas forced convection, which is the operating principle of the fast flow lasers. Sersc.org The field of quality evaluation of markings is still dominated by human inspection techniques. Compared to inspection systems humans have a larger dynamic range but lack the objectiveness of automated systems and do not achieve their high repeatability and reproducibility. Electroplating Thomasnet.com Nickel is considered useful for electroplating metal because it provides superior ductility, corrosion resistance, and hardness. Proper pre- and post-treatment of the base product has a direct correlation to the quality and deposition rate of electro nickel plating. Metalplatingclub.com a plating process that uses an electrical current to reduce positively charged ions of a desired material (the metal you want to coat your object with) from a solution and coat a conductive object with a thin layer of the material, such as a metal. The process used in electroplating is actually called electrodeposition. The part to be plated is the cathode of the circuit, and typically the metal to form the coat onto the target object is the anode (either soluble or insoluble) ieeeghn.org Electroplating became an important commercial process in the 1840s, when John Wright of Birmingham, England, discovered that gold or silver could be dissolved in potassium cyanide for use in electroplating. One of the first companies to use the new process was the English firm Elkington & Mason, which opened a silverware manufacturing company and made things such as eyeglass frames, pen nibs, and other small metal products that could be plated in large batches.
Summary All manufacturing processes can have a wide range of uses and products based on how they are applied. Even the smallest parts used in a manufacturing process have more than one patent associated with them. These two facts show how technology and ideas can build on one another and use previous innovations to build up to brand new ones if someone is creative enough to think of new applications
References Patents Arnett, Bird L., and Marshal V T Stephen. Shaping Thermoplastic Resinous Sheets. Dow Chemical Co, assignee. Patent US3011212 A. 5 Dec. 1961. Print. Groth, Fred A., and Meisuer Paul. Pressure Forming of Plastic Film. Dynamics Corp America, assignee. Patent US 3258813 A. 5 July 1966. Print. Michelon, Bernard, and Dominique Schwab. Method and Device for Thermoforming of Containers. Erca Formseal, assignee. Patent US 7255552 B2. 14 Aug. 2007. Print Pagryzinski, William V., and Caleb A. Ziebold. Systems and Methods for Laser Marking Work Pieces. Therma-Tru, Inc., assignee. Patent US 8585956 B1. 19 Nov. 2013. Print. Braudy, R. Laser Writing. Rca Corp, assignee. Patent US 3745586 A. 10 July 1973. Print. Inoue, Kiyoshi. Beam-machining Method and Apparatus. Inoue-Japax Research Incorporated, assignee. Patent US 4507536 A. 26 Mar. 1985. Print.,. Metal Nano-electroplating Equipment., assignee. Patent CN 203096211 U. 31 July 2013. Print. Mark William Neff, David Jose De Miranda. Electroplating System with Electroplating Wheel. Tyco Electronics Corporation, assignee. Patent US8551301 B2. 8 Oct. 2013. Print. Mark L. Smith. Apparatus for Selectively Plating Electrical Terminals. Amp Incorporated, assignee. Patent US4687555 A. 18 Aug. 1987. Print. Websites "Tutorial: The Thermoforming Process." Sinotech.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. "Thermoforming." Tapplastics.com. Cryo Industries, n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich. "Thermoforming." Substech.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. Trotec Laser Inc. "How to Laser Mark." Troteclaser.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. Sintec Optronics Pte Ltd. "Laser Marking Technologies." Sintecoptronics.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. Matthias Hübner, Norbert Bachfischer, Christian Teutsch, Dirk Berndt, Jost Schnee. "Optical Inspection of Laser Markings in the Production Process." Sersc.org. Fraunhofer Institute for Factory Operation and Automation (IFF), Siemens AG, Industry Sector, I IA CD CC FTQ 31, n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. "The Electro Nickel Plating Process." Thomasnet.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. "The Electroplating Method Explained." Metalplatingclub.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. "Electroplating." Ieeeghn.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. Pictures "Tutorial: The Thermoforming Process." Sinotech.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. Sintec Optronics Pte Ltd. "Laser Marking Technologies." Sintecoptronics.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014. "The Electroplating Method Explained." Metalplatingclub.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2014.
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