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3D Printing Change this title. What is 3D Printing? Another name for Rapid Prototyping or RP for short.

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Presentation on theme: "3D Printing Change this title. What is 3D Printing? Another name for Rapid Prototyping or RP for short."— Presentation transcript:

1 3D Printing Change this title

2 What is 3D Printing? Another name for Rapid Prototyping or RP for short

3 What is 3D Printing? Another name for Rapid Prototyping or RP for short Describes a class of processes by which a CAD (virtual) model is transformed into a real (physical) model or object using computer controlled fabrication machines (images)

4 What is 3D Printing? Another name for Rapid Prototyping or RP for short Describes a class of processes by which a CAD (virtual) model is transformed into a real (physical) model or object using computer controlled fabrication machines (images) All RP processes use an additive fabrication approach

5 What is 3D Printing? Another name for Rapid Prototyping or RP for short Describes a class of processes by which a CAD (virtual) model is transformed into a real (physical) model or object using computer controlled fabrication machines (images) All RP processes use an additive fabrication approach Whats additive fabrication?

6 Additive fabrication An additive process:

7 Additive fabrication An additive process: –Starts with nothing…

8 Additive fabrication An additive process: –Starts with nothing… –Builds the model up by adding material or components

9 Additive fabrication An additive process: –Starts with nothing… –Builds the model up by adding material or components –Material is added by depositing, gluing, fastening…

10 Additive fabrication An additive process: –Starts with nothing… –Builds the model up by adding material or components –Material is added by depositing, gluing, fastening… Typical architectural scale example: –Building a structure out of bricks

11 Subtractive fabrication A subtractive process:

12 Subtractive fabrication A subtractive process: –Starts with a block of material bigger than the final object

13 Subtractive fabrication A subtractive process: –Starts with a block of material bigger than the final object –Removes the material not needed in the design

14 Subtractive fabrication A subtractive process: –Starts with a block of material bigger than the final object –Removes the material not needed in the design –Material is removed by cutting, stamping, burning, chemical etching…

15 Subtractive fabrication A subtractive process: –Starts with a block of material bigger than the final object –Removes the material not needed in the design –Material is removed by cutting, stamping, burning, chemical etching… Typical architectural scale example: –Building a Swiss military base inside a mountain…

16 Subtractive fabrication A subtractive process: –Starts with a block of material bigger than the final object –Removes the material not needed in the design –Material is removed by cutting, stamping, burning, chemical etching… Typical architectural scale example: –Building a Swiss military base inside a mountain… Prototyping can also done subtractively

17 Subtractive fabrication A subtractive process: –Starts with a block of material bigger than the final object –Removes the material not needed in the design –Material is removed by cutting, stamping, burning, chemical etching… Typical architectural scale example: –Building a Swiss military base inside a mountain… Prototyping can also done subtractively Usually this is done with CNC milling

18 Subtractive fabrication A subtractive process: –Starts with a block of material bigger than the final object –Removes the material not needed in the design –Material is removed by cutting, stamping, burning, chemical etching… Typical architectural scale example: –Building a Swiss military base inside a mountain… Prototyping can also done subtractively Usually this is done with CNC milling Mostly we would call this just Prototyping and not Rapid Prototyping

19 Subtractive fabrication A subtractive process: –Starts with a block of material bigger than the final object –Removes the material not needed in the design –Material is removed by cutting, stamping, burning, chemical etching… Typical architectural scale example: –Building a Swiss military base inside a mountain… Prototyping can also done subtractively Usually this is done with CNC milling Mostly we would call this just Prototyping and not Rapid Prototyping Will not be covered here

20 What Else? There is also a 3rd process – Deformation…

21 What Else? There is also a 3rd process – Deformation… –Material is neither added nor removed, the part just changes shape

22 What Else? There is also a 3rd process – Deformation… –Material is neither added nor removed, the part just changes shape Deformation uses heat and/or pressure and often some kind of form

23 What Else? There is also a 3rd process – Deformation… –Material is neither added nor removed, the part just changes shape Deformation uses heat and/or pressure and often some kind of form Examples: vacuum forming, sheet metal embossing, folding

24 What Else? There is also a 3rd process – Deformation… –Material is neither added nor removed, the part just changes shape Deformation uses heat and/or pressure and often some kind of form Examples: vacuum forming, sheet metal embossing, folding Typical architectural scale example: –check out the original aluminum EPFL siding panels

25 What Else? There is also a 3rd process – Deformation… –Material is neither added nor removed, the part just changes shape Deformation uses heat and/or pressure and often some kind of form Examples: vacuum forming, sheet metal embossing, folding Typical architectural scale example: –check out the original aluminum EPFL siding panels Will not be covered here

26 Putting it all together… Its rare when something is built exclusively with one process

27 Putting it all together… Its rare when something is built exclusively with one process Most things are made using a combination of these 3 processes

28 Putting it all together… Its rare when something is built exclusively with one process Most things are made using a combination of these 3 processes …but thats another story.

29 Back to RP/additive fabrication… All RP processes use layered model construction

30 Back to RP/additive fabrication… All RP processes use layered model construction –Like a topographic map

31 Back to RP/additive fabrication… All RP processes use layered model construction –Like a topographic map Thus its not really 3D in a true sense…

32 Back to RP/additive fabrication… All RP processes use layered model construction –Like a topographic map Thus its not really 3D in a true sense… Its more like a serial 2D process

33 Back to RP/additive fabrication… All RP processes use layered model construction –Like a topographic map Thus its not really 3D in a true sense… Its more like a serial 2D process –The mathematics are actually much simpler than something truly 3D (like 3D surface CNC milling) – its just a series of flat slices (curves)

34 Back to RP/additive fabrication… All RP processes use layered model construction –Like a topographic map Thus its not really 3D in a true sense… Its more like a serial 2D process –The mathematics are actually much simpler than something truly 3D (like 3D surface CNC milling) – its just a series of flat slices (curves) Various processes have different ways of building up the material

35 Back to RP/additive fabrication… All RP processes use layered model construction –Like a topographic map Thus its not really 3D in a true sense… Its more like a serial 2D process –The mathematics are actually much simpler than something truly 3D (like 3D surface CNC milling) – its just a series of flat slices (curves) Various processes have different ways of building up the material The resolution, precision, object size also vary according to process

36 Back to RP/additive fabrication… All RP processes use layered model construction –Like a topographic map Thus its not really 3D in a true sense… Its more like a serial 2D process –The mathematics are actually much simpler than something truly 3D (like 3D surface CNC milling) – its just a series of flat slices (curves) Various processes have different ways of building up the material The resolution, precision, object size also vary according to process As do the mechanical characteristics and possible materials

37 A few of the more common processes…

38 Stereolithography (SLA) –A laser beam hardens layers in a bath of liquid resin Materials: Various plastics Characteristics: Highest precision, transparent possible Machine cost: Very expensive Part cost: High

39 A few of the more common processes… Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) –Heats (softens) and extrudes a solid thermoplastic wire Materials: Various plastics (ABS, polycarbonate) Characteristics: Low precision, strong parts, long print times Machine cost: Moderate (size dependent) Part cost: Medium

40 A few of the more common processes… Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) –A laser beam fuses particles (powder) together to form solid layer Materials: Plastics, metals, composites Characteristics: Medium to high precision Machine cost: Very expensive Part cost: High

41 A few of the more common processes… Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) –Laminates layers of sheet material and cuts them out (plastic, paper) Materials: Plastic (PVC), paper (no longer made) Characteristics: Relatively low precision, semi-transparent parts Machine cost: Very inexpensive (Solido) Part cost: Medium

42 A few of the more common processes… Polymer Inkjet printing (PolyJet) –Prints a thick ink that hardens with UV light (plastic, rubber) Materials: Plastics, elastomer Characteristics: High precision, semi-transparent parts, multi-material possible Machine cost: Expensive Part cost: Medium

43 A few of the more common processes… 3D Printing – inkjet binder – (Z Corp) –Inkjet prints a glue (binder) onto a powder to solidify layer Materials: Plaster, starch, ceramic Characteristics: Med-low precision, somewhat fragile parts, fast print Machine cost: Moderate Part cost: Low

44 A few of the more common processes… Wax printers – (Solidscape, Thermojet) –Melts and deposits fine wax droplets to make layers Materials: Wax metal (lost wax castings for jewelry, medical, etc.) Characteristics: High to very high precision Machine cost: High to moderate Part cost: Medium

45 And, for a change of scale…

46 Back to our small scale… at the EPFL…

47 What do we need to start…?

48 A 3D Computer (CAD) model in most any form…

49 Computer model requirements Model in whatever software you like

50 Computer model requirements Model in whatever software you like –As long as its Rhino…

51 Computer model requirements Model in whatever software you like Model MUST be one or more CLOSED volumes

52 Computer model requirements Model in whatever software you like Model MUST be one or more CLOSED volumes Model must be in MM at model size

53 Computer model requirements Model in whatever software you like Model MUST be one or more CLOSED volumes Model must be in MM at model size Make an appointment to see Mitch for advice

54 Computer model requirements Model in whatever software you like Model MUST be one or more CLOSED volumes Model must be in MM at model size Make an appointment to see Mitch for advice Advise us as far in advance as possible if you want to print something

55 Computer model requirements Model in whatever software you like Model MUST be one or more CLOSED volumes Model must be in MM at model size Make an appointment to see Mitch for advice Advise us as far in advance as possible if you want to print something If modeling in Rhino, bring file in Rhino (.3dm) format

56 Computer model requirements Model in whatever software you like Model MUST be one or more CLOSED volumes Model must be in MM at model size Make an appointment to see Mitch for advice Advise us as far in advance as possible if you want to print something If modeling in Rhino, bring file in Rhino (.3dm) format If modeling in other software, bring model in.stl format


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