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Class #3 Inventory Measurement. Inventory Those assets that a company: 2. Has in production (work in process) for future sale. 1. Intends to sell in the.

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Presentation on theme: "Class #3 Inventory Measurement. Inventory Those assets that a company: 2. Has in production (work in process) for future sale. 1. Intends to sell in the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Class #3 Inventory Measurement

2 Inventory Those assets that a company: 2. Has in production (work in process) for future sale. 1. Intends to sell in the normal course of business. 1. Intends to sell in the normal course of business. 3. Uses currently in the production of goods to be sold (raw materials). 3. Uses currently in the production of goods to be sold (raw materials).

3 Types of Inventories Merchandise Inventory Goods acquired for resale Manufacturing Inventory Raw Materials Work-in-Process Finished Goods Raw Materials Work-in-Process Finished Goods Types of Inventory

4 Inventory Cost Flows Raw Materials (1) $XX $XX (4) Work in Process Finished Goods Cost of Good Sold Direct Labor Manufacturing Overhead $XX $XX (7) $XX$XX (8) $XX (2) $XX $XX (5) (3) $XX $XX (6) (1)Raw materials purchased (2)Direct labor incurred (3)Manufacturing overhead incurred (4)Raw materials used (5)Direct labor applied (6)Manufacturing overhead applied (7)Work in process transferred to finished goods (8)Finished goods sold (1)Raw materials purchased (2)Direct labor incurred (3)Manufacturing overhead incurred (4)Raw materials used (5)Direct labor applied (6)Manufacturing overhead applied (7)Work in process transferred to finished goods (8)Finished goods sold

5 Inventory Methods Perpetual Inventory System The inventory account is continuously updated as purchases and sales are made. Periodic Inventory System The inventory account is adjusted at the end of a reporting cycle. Two accounting systems are used to record transactions involving inventory:

6 Perpetual Inventory System Lothridge Wholesale Beverage Company (LWBC) begins 2013 with $120,000 in inventory. During the period it purchases on account $600,000 of merchandise for resale to customers. Returns of inventory are credited to the inventory account. Discounts on inventory purchases can be recorded using the gross or net method Inventory600,000 Accounts payable 600,000 To record the purchase of merchandise inventory.

7 Perpetual Inventory System During 2013, LWBC sold, on account, inventory with a retail price of $820,000 and a cost basis of $540,000, to customers Inventory600,000 Accounts payable 600,000 To record the purchase of merchandise inventory Accounts receivable820,000 Sales revenue 820,000 To record sales on account. Cost of goods sold540,000 Inventory 540,000 To record cost of goods sold.

8 Periodic Inventory System The periodic inventory system is not designed to track either the quantity or cost of merchandise inventory. Cost of goods sold is calculated, using the schedule below, after the physical inventory count at the end of the period.

9 Periodic Inventory System Lothridge Wholesale Beverage Company (LWBC) begins 2013 with $120,000 in inventory. During the period it purchases on account $600,000 of merchandise for resale to customers Purchases600,000 Accounts payable 600,000 To record the purchase of merchandise inventory.

10 Periodic Inventory System No entry is made to record cost of goods sold. A physical count of ending inventory shows a balance of $180,000. Lets calculate cost of goods sold at the end of During 2013, LWBC sold, on account, inventory with a retail price of $820,000 to customers, and a cost basis of $540, Accounts receivable820,000 Sales revenue 820,000 To record sales on account.

11 Periodic Inventory System We need the following adjusting entry to record cost of good sold. December 31, 2013 Cost of goods sold540,000 Inventory (ending)180,000 Inventory (beginning) 120,000 Purchases 600,000 To adjust inventory, close the purchases account, and record cost of goods sold.

12 Comparison of Inventory Systems

13 What is Included in Inventory? General Rule All goods owned by the company on the inventory date, regardless of their location. General Rule All goods owned by the company on the inventory date, regardless of their location. Goods in Transit Goods on Consignment Depends on FOB shipping terms.

14 Expenditures Included in Inventory Invoice Price Freight-in on Purchases + Purchase Returns Purchase Discounts

15 Real World …the cost of warehousing and occupancy for our Wal-Mart segment distribution facilities are included in operating, selling and general and administrative expenses. Because we do not include the cost of our Wal-Mart segment distribution facilities in cost of sales, our gross profit and gross margin may not be comparable to those of other retailers that may include all costs related to their distribution facilities in costs of sales and in the calculation of gross profit and gross margin.

16 Purchase Returns November 8, 2013 Accounts payable 2,000Accounts payable 2,000 Purchase returns 2,000 Inventory 2,000 On November 8, 2013, LWBC returns merchandise that had a cost to LWBC of $2,000. Periodic Inventory MethodPerpetual Inventory Method Returns of inventory are credited to the Purchase Returns account when using the periodic inventory method. The returns are credited to Inventory using the perpetual inventory method. Returns of inventory are credited to the Purchase Returns account when using the periodic inventory method. The returns are credited to Inventory using the perpetual inventory method.

17 Purchase Discounts October 5, 2013 Purchases 20,000 Purchases 19,600 Accounts payable 20,000Accounts payable 19,600 October 14, 2013 Accounts payable 14,000 Accounts payable 13,720 Purchase discounts 280Cash13,720 Cash 13,720 November 4, 2013 Accounts payable 6,000 Accounts payable 5,880 Cash 6,000 Interest expense 120 Cash 6,000 Discount terms are 2/10, n/30. $14,000 x 0.02 $ 280 Partial payment not made within the discount period Gross MethodNet Method $20,000 x 0.02 $ 400 ̵ 120 $ 280

18 Net Method Using Perpetual and Periodic

19 Inventory Cost Flow Methods Specific cost identification Average cost First-in, first-out (FIFO) Last-in, first-out (LIFO) Specific cost identification Average cost First-in, first-out (FIFO) Last-in, first-out (LIFO)

20 Real World – Wal-Mart The Company uses the retail last-in, first-out (LIFO) method for general merchandise within the Wal-Mart Stores segment, cost LIFO for the SAMS CLUB segment and grocery items within the Wal-Mart Stores segment, and other cost methods, including the retail first-in, first-out (FIFO) and average cost methods, for the International segment. Inventories are not recorded in excess of market value.

21 The specific cost of each inventory item must be known. Only for items with serial #s or other identity means. The specific cost of each inventory item must be known. Only for items with serial #s or other identity means. Specific Cost Identification Items are added to inventory at cost when they are purchased. COGS for each sale is based on the specific cost of the item sold. Items are added to inventory at cost when they are purchased. COGS for each sale is based on the specific cost of the item sold.

22 Perpetual Average Cost

23 ($20, ,750) ÷ (2, ) = $10.25

24 Perpetual Average Cost ($25, ,950) ÷ (2, ,000) = $10.45

25 Perpetual Average Cost 3,500 – 1,500 sold on 9/29 = 2,000 units in ending inventory at a cost of $10.45 per unit.

26 Weighted-Average Periodic System Lets use the same information to assign costs to ending inventory and cost of goods sold using the periodic system. Available for Sale (4,000 units) Available for Sale (4,000 units) Ending Inventory (2,000 units) Goods Sold (2,000) $41,700 ÷ 4,000 = $ weighted-average per unit cost

27 Weighted-Average Periodic System

28 First-In, First-Out (FIFO) The cost of the oldest inventory items are charged to COGS when goods are sold. The cost of the newest inventory items remain in ending inventory. The cost of the oldest inventory items are charged to COGS when goods are sold. The cost of the newest inventory items remain in ending inventory. The FIFO method assumes that items are sold in the chronological order of their acquisition.

29 First-In, First-Out (FIFO) Even though the periodic and the perpetual approaches differ in the timing of adjustments to inventory COGS and Ending Inventory Cost are the same under both approaches. Even though the periodic and the perpetual approaches differ in the timing of adjustments to inventory COGS and Ending Inventory Cost are the same under both approaches.

30 First-In, First-Out (FIFO) Periodic Inventory System These 2,000 units come from the beginning inventory (first-in, first-out).

31 First-In, First-Out (FIFO) Periodic Inventory System

32

33 Last-In, First-Out (LIFO) The cost of the newest inventory items are charged to COGS when goods are sold. The cost of the oldest inventory items remain in inventory. The cost of the newest inventory items are charged to COGS when goods are sold. The cost of the oldest inventory items remain in inventory. The LIFO method assumes that the newest items are sold first, leaving the older units in inventory.

34 Last-In, First-Out (LIFO) Unlike FIFO, using the LIFO method may result in COGS and Ending Inventory Cost that differ under the periodic and perpetual approaches.

35 Last-In, First-Out Perpetual Inventory System These are the oldest units in inventory and are most likely to remain in inventory when using LIFO.

36 Last-In, First-Out Perpetual Inventory System The Cost of Goods Sold for the September 7 sale come from the purchase of September 3, so we record the cost of goods sold at $5,375 (500 units times $10.75).

37 Last-In, First-Out Perpetual Inventory System The Cost of Goods Sold for the September 29 sale come from the purchase of September 3 (500 remaining units) plus 1,000 units from the purchase of September 21, for a total of 1,500 units,

38 Last-In, First-Out Perpetual Inventory System

39 Last-In, First-Out Periodic Inventory System

40

41 When Prices Are Rising... LIFO Matches high (newer) costs with current (higher) sales. Inventory is valued based on low (older) cost basis. Results in lower pre- tax income. FIFO Matches low (older) costs with current (higher) sales. Inventory is valued at approximate replacement cost. Results in higher pre-tax income.

42 U. S. GAAP vs. IFRS LIFO is permitted and used by U.S. Companies. If used for income tax reporting, the company must use LIFO for financial reporting. Conformity with IAS No. 2 would cause many U.S. companies to lose a valuable tax shelter. LIFO is an important issue for U.S. multinational companies. Unless the U.S. Congress repeals the LIFO conformity rule, an inability to use LIFO under IFRS will impose a serious impediment to convergence. IAS No. 2, Inventories, does not permit the use of LIFO. Because of this restriction, many U.S. multinational companies use LIFO only for domestic inventories.

43 Decision Makers Perspective Factors Influencing Method Choice How are income taxes affected by inventory method choice? How closely do reported costs reflect actual flow of inventory? How well are costs matched against related revenues?

44 Supplemental LIFO Disclosures Many companies use LIFO for external reporting and income tax purposes but maintain internal records using FIFO or average cost. The conversion from FIFO or average cost to LIFO takes place at the end of the period. The conversion may look like this:

45 LIFO Liquidation LIFO inventory costs in the balance sheet are out of date because they reflect old purchase transactions. LIFO inventory costs in the balance sheet are out of date because they reflect old purchase transactions. When prices rise... If inventory declines, these out of date costs may be charged to current earnings. This LIFO liquidation results in paper profits. This LIFO liquidation results in paper profits.

46 Inventory Management Gross profit ratio = Gross profit Net sales Inventory turnover ratio = Cost of goods sold Average inventory The higher the ratio, the higher the markup a company is able to achieve on its products. (Beginning inventory + Ending inventory 2 Designed to evaluate a companys effectiveness in managing its investment in inventory

47 Quality of Earnings Changes in the ratios we discussed above often provide information about the quality of a companys current period earnings. For example, a slowing turnover ratio combined with higher than normal inventory levels may indicate the potential for decreased production, obsolete inventory, or a need to decrease prices to sell inventory (which will then decrease gross profit ratios and net income). Many believe that manipulating income reduces earnings quality because it can mask permanent earnings. Inventory write-downs and changes in inventory method are two additional inventory-related techniques a company could use to manipulate earnings.

48 Methods of Simplifying LIFO The objectives of using LIFO inventory pools are to simplify recordkeeping by grouping inventory units into pools based on physical similarities of the individual units and to reduce the risk of LIFO layer liquidation. For example, a glass company might group its various grades of window glass into a single window pool. Other pools might be auto glass and sliding door glass. A lumber company might pool its inventory into hardwood, framing lumber, paneling, and so on. LIFO pools allow companies to account for a few inventory pools rather than every specific type of inventory separately. LIFO Inventory Pools

49 Example The replacement inventory differs from the old inventory on hand. We just create a new layer. Methods of Simplifying LIFO Dollar-Value LIFO (DVL) DVL inventory pools are viewed as layers of value, rather than layers of similar units. DVL simplifies LIFO recordkeeping. DVL minimizes the probability of layer liquidation. At the end of the period, we determine if a new inventory layer was added by comparing ending inventory dollar amount to beginning inventory dollar amount.

50 Methods of Simplifying LIFO Dollar-Value LIFO (DVL) We need to determine if the increase in ending inventory over beginning inventory was due to a cost increase or an increase in inventory quantity. 1a. Compute a Cost Index for the year.

51 Methods of Simplifying LIFO Dollar-Value LIFO (DVL) 1b. Deflate the ending inventory value using the cost index. 1c. Compare ending inventory at base year cost to beginning inventory at base year cost.

52 Methods of Simplifying LIFO Dollar-Value LIFO (DVL) Next, identify the layers in ending inventory and the years they were created. Sum all the layers to arrive at ending inventory at DVL cost. Convert each layers base year cost to layer year cost by multiplying times the cost index.

53 Methods of Simplifying LIFO Dollar-Value LIFO (DVL) Masterwear reports the following inventory and cost index information. Lets look at the solution to this example.

54 Methods of Simplifying LIFO Dollar-Value LIFO (DVL) Masterwear reports the following inventory and general price information.

55 Methods of Simplifying LIFO Dollar-Value LIFO (DVL) First, determine the LIFO layer for the current year:

56 Methods of Simplifying LIFO Dollar-Value LIFO (DVL) At the LIFO layer at end of period prices to the ending LIFO inventory from last period.


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