Chapter 6 Inventories and Cost of Goods Sold. Gross Profit and Cost of Goods Sold An initial step in assessing profitability is gross profit (profit margin.
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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Inventories and Cost of Goods Sold. Gross Profit and Cost of Goods Sold An initial step in assessing profitability is gross profit (profit margin."— Presentation transcript:
Gross Profit and Cost of Goods Sold An initial step in assessing profitability is gross profit (profit margin or gross margin), which is the difference between sales revenues and the costs of the goods sold. Products being held for resale are reported as inventory, a current asset. –When the goods are sold, the costs of the inventory become an expense, Cost of Goods Sold. This expense is deducted from Net Sales to determine Gross Profit.
The Basic Concept of Inventory Accounting The key to calculating cost of goods sold is accounting for the remaining inventory at the end of the year. Cost valuation - process of assigning specific historical costs to items counted in the physical inventory –Multiply the number of items in ending inventory times the cost of each item.
Perpetual and Periodic Inventory Systems Two main systems for keeping merchandise inventory records: –Perpetual inventory system - a system that keeps a running, continuous record that tracks inventories and the cost of goods sold on a day- to-day basis –Periodic inventory system - a system in which the cost of good sold is computed periodically by relying solely on physical counts without keeping day-to-day records of units sold or on hand
Perpetual and Periodic Inventory Systems A perpetual inventory system helps managers control inventory levels and prepare interim financial statements. –The inventory amount can be found at any given point in time. Inventory items must be counted at least once a year to ensure correct valuation. –Physical count - the process of counting all the items in inventory at a moment in time
Perpetual and Periodic Inventory Systems In a perpetual system, the journal entries are: When inventory is purchased: Merchandise inventoryxxx Accounts payable (or Cash)xxx When inventory is sold: Accounts receivable (or Cash)xxx Sales revenuexxx Cost of goods soldxxx Merchandise inventoryxxx
Perpetual and Periodic Inventory Systems In a periodic system, no day-to-day inventory records are maintained. The physical count allows management to delete damaged or obsolete items and thus helps to reveal inventory shrinkage - inventory reductions from theft, breakage, or losses of inventory.
Perpetual and Periodic Inventory Systems Under the periodic system, calculations for cost of goods sold start with cost of goods available for sale, which is the sum of the beginning inventory plus current year purchases. Under the perpetual system, cost of goods sold is kept on a day-to-day basis.
Perpetual and Periodic Inventory Systems Both methods produce the same cost of goods sold figure. –The perpetual system is more timely, but it is more costly to administer. –The perpetual system is less costly to administer because there is no day-to-day processing regarding inventory costs or cost of goods sold.
Comparing Accounting Procedures for Periodic and Perpetual Inventory Systems In the perpetual system, purchases of merchandise directly increase the Inventory account, and purchase returns and allowances and sales directly decrease the Inventory account. In the periodic system, purchases of merchandise increase the Purchases account, and purchase returns and allowances are placed in separate accounts that are deducted from Purchases. –Sales of merchandise have no effect on the Purchases account.
Comparing Accounting Procedures for Periodic and Perpetual Inventory Systems Under the perpetual system, inventory amounts are updated each time an inventory transaction is processed. Under a periodic system, the Inventory account does not change until the end of the accounting period. –At that time, a physical inventory is taken to determine the amount of inventory on hand, and an entry is made to adjust the Inventory account to that amount.
Principal Inventory Valuation Methods Four inventory valuation systems have been generally accepted. –Specific identification –First in, first out (FIFO) –Last in, first out (LIFO) –Weighted average
Principal Inventory Valuation Methods If unit prices and costs did not change, all four inventory valuation methods would show identical results. Because prices change, cost of goods sold (income measurement) and inventories (asset measurement) are affected. –The choice of the inventory valuation method can significantly affect the amount reported as net income and ending inventory.
FIFO FIFO (first in, first out) method - assigns the cost of the earliest acquired units to cost of goods sold –This might not be the actual physical flow of goods within the company. –Under FIFO, the oldest units are deemed to be sold, regardless of which units are actually given to the customer. –The costs of the newer units in stock are included in ending inventory.
FIFO FIFO includes the most recent costs in ending inventory, so the inventory tends to closely approximate that actual market value of the inventory at the balance sheet date. Also, in periods when prices are rising, FIFO leads to higher net income because the costs of the older, lower costing items are included in cost of goods sold.
LIFO LIFO (last in, first out) method - assigns the most recent costs to cost of goods sold –This might not be the actual physical flow of goods within the company. –Under LIFO, the newest units are deemed to be sold, regardless of which units are actually given to the customer. –The costs of the older units in stock are included in ending inventory.
LIFO LIFO uses the oldest costs to value ending inventory, so that value may be significantly different from the actual market value of the inventory at the balance sheet date. In periods when prices are rising, LIFO yields lower net income because the higher costs of more recent purchases are put into cost of goods sold first.
LIFO Because LIFO results in reduced net income, it also results in lower income taxes. –The Internal Revenue Code requires that if a company uses LIFO to compute its taxable income, the company must also use LIFO to compute its financial net income. –The result is lower income taxes and lower reported earnings figures to investors.
LIFO If LIFO is such a good deal, why do some companies still use FIFO? For several reasons: –The costs of changing methods can be significant. –Management may be reluctant to decrease earnings and possibly salaries and bonuses. –Management might fear that lower income would hurt in loan negotiations with banks. –Lower earnings will often lower stock prices.