Presentation on theme: "Punishment in Public Goods Games in Japan"— Presentation transcript:
1 Punishment in Public Goods Games in Japan Yukihiko Funaki, Robert Veszteg (Waseda U)早稻田大學Masao Ogaki (Keio U), andSimon Gächter, Fumio OhtakeSeminar in National Tsing Hua Univ. 国立清華大學 March 6, 2014
2 What do we do?We follow Herrmann, Thöni, and Gächter (Science 2008, HTG) and Yamagishi (Social Psychology Quarterly 1988) to do linear Public Goods Game (PGG) experiments with and without costly punishment in Japan.We also implemented intermediate experiments of the two.Our findings:(1)Punishment behavior in Japan is different from other countries.(2)The HTG and Yamagishi punishment rules cause very different behaviors in Japan.(3)Behavior in the intermediate one is close to Yamagishi rules.
3 Rules of punishment HTG rules: An individual can punish anyone a free rider: Altruistic punishmenta higher contributor: Antisocial punishmentYamagishi rules: An individual contributes to a punishment fund, which only punishes the free riders (those who contribute the lowest amount).Intermediate rules: explained later
4 Herrmann, Thöni, and Gächter (2008) HTG did comparable experiments in 16 countries including China and Korea, but not in Japan.They used PGG with and without punishment in Fehr and Gächter (AER 2000) with the partner matching (10 rounds with the same players)Treatment N: 4 person PGG game (Baseline)Treatment P: Individual Punishment Opportunityi’s punishment cost for j
5 HTG punishment and culture HTG punishment rules worked very well to promote cooperation in US, Europe, and East Asia (China and Korea)HTG punishment rules did not work well in Greece, Turkey, and Arabic speaking countries: Antisocial punishment was high in these countries.From these results, one might expect that Japan would show similar results as in China and Korea,Our experiment on January 18, 2012 at Waseda in Tokyo.Z-tree program, 60 participants, undergraduate students of several majors
9 Yamagishi (1988)Yamagishi compared Japan and US for PGG with and without costly punishment.Punishment worked better to promote cooperation in Japan than in the United States. (Opposite from our results!)Different Punishment mechanismThere is a FUND to punish the lowest contributor(s) automatically.Subjects can contribute to the FUND.There are some important differences in Yamagishi’s procedure other than punishment rules:E.g., Subjects answered a general trust question one week prior to the experiment, and the middle 20% subjects were excluded from the experiment recruiting.
10 Our second experiment (Yamagishi treatment) Punishment rules or other differences?Our 2013 experiments at Waseda and Osaka Universities: Exactly same as the HTG procedure except for Yamagishi FUND punishment rules. (LJP treatment)Very similar instructions, screens, procedures18 Jan. , 16 May 2013, at Waseda, 40 participants4 Feb. 7 March 2013, at Osaka, 48 participantsYamagishi rules work better than HTG rules in Japan for the purpose of promoting cooperation.
13 Yamagishi punishment rules work better in Japan Two possible reasons:Punishment works better if it is only allowed to punish free riders.Japanese punish more if the punishment is done through a punishment fund rather than individually (framing effect)We implemented other two intermediate treatmentsTreatment LP: HTG punishment rule with a restriction that only the free riders (lowest contributors) are punishedTreatment Pframing: HTG punishment rule with a framing of FUND
14 Intermediate Treatment LP HTG punishment rules with a restriction that only the lowest contributor(s) are punishedVery similar instruction, screens, procedure26 Feb., 16 May 2013, Waseda, 40 participants7 March 2013, Osaka,48 participantsThis mechanism works well like Yamagishi rules and better than HTG rules in Japan for the purpose of promoting cooperation.
17 Treatment Pframing 15,16 May 2013, at Waseda, 40participants HTG punishment rules with framing by the word FUND.Very similar instruction, screens, procedure15,16 May 2013, at Waseda, 40participantsNo significant difference from P treatment
19 LJP(Yamagishi) and LP are important It is important to restrict that only the lowest contributor(s) can be punished.This effect is more important than FUND system.We combine LJP and LP into L .Why L is important?Someone might like contributing a large amount to the public good.However he/she might be afraid to be punished in an antisocial way.
27 Who punishes whom?There is a lot of punishment targeting free riders, but also antisocial punishment targeting higher contributors.How can we explain this?Punishment for free riders vs antisocial punishment
33 Highest and Lowest contributors punish each other. Punishee(TREATMENT P)Punishee (TREATMENT L=LJP+LP)Punisherhighest contr.above-average(ex. highest)below-average(ex. lowest)lowest contr.total(total)highest CONTRIBUTOR24261431752940.581.167.5441.4550.7274.24(ex.highest)14247600.290.0012.1713.6215.15(ex.lowest)336450.8710.4313.0410.61lowest contributor34131219789.863.773.485.5122.61402024034539611.595.8069.57100.00
34 Who punishes whom? Highest contributors punish the Lowest most often. Lowest contributors get punished by the Highest most.Lowest contributors punish the Highest most.(Antisocial)From the beginning, Highest punishes Lowest constantly.Antisocial punishment by the Lowest is increasing till the middle period.Antisocial punishment by the Lowest is decreasing after the middle period.
35 Story First the Lowest contributors did not recognized to be punished. They got understood that the Lowest would get punished from the others. (They do not know who punished them.)They think that a punishment by the Highest is most possible.The Lowest aims to revenge the Highest before he/she will be punished.⇒ not many punishments by the Highest in P treatment& many punishments by the Highest in L treatment⇒ L restriction works well
36 Tentative Conclusions Japanese culture of punishment is very uniqueHTG punishment rules did not work not because of antisocial punishment but for other reasons unlike the HTG resultsHTG punishment rules worked well in US, Europe, China, and KoreaIt is better to restrict punishment to free riders, the Lowest contributors, in JapanIn Japan, punishment is usually targeted to a small groupEffect of framing of a punishment FUND is weak.Leader punished free riders and, free riders punished the leader.In Japan, to be a conspicuous leader should be avoided.
37 Japanese Proverbs A stake that sticks out gets hammered down. 出る杭は打たれる Great winds blow on high hills.