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The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey: Preliminary Results and Lessons Learned Mauro Giavalisco Space Telescope Science Institute and the GOODS team.

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Presentation on theme: "The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey: Preliminary Results and Lessons Learned Mauro Giavalisco Space Telescope Science Institute and the GOODS team."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey: Preliminary Results and Lessons Learned Mauro Giavalisco Space Telescope Science Institute and the GOODS team STScI/ESO/ST-ECF/JPL/SSC/Gemini/Boston U./U. Ariz./U. Fla./U. Hawai/UCLA/UCSC/IAP/Saclay/Yale/AUI

2 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey The GOODS Treasury/Legacy Mission Aim: to establish deep reference fields with public data sets from X-ray through radio wavelengths for the study of galaxy and AGN evolution of the broadest accessible range of redshift and cosmic time. GOODS unites the deepest survey data from NASAs Great Observatories (HST, Chandra, SIRTF), ESAs XMM-Newton, and the great ground-based observatories. Primary science goals: The star formation and mass assembly history of galaxies The growth distribution of dark matter structures Supernovae at high redshifts and the cosmic expansion Census of energetic output from star formation and supermassive black holes Measurements or limits on the discrete source component of the EBL Raw data public upon acquisition; reduced data released as soon as possible

3 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey A Synopsis of GOODS GOODS Space HST Treasury (PI: M. Giavalisco) –B, V, i, z (3, 2.5, 2.5, 5 orbits) –400 orbits –Δθ = 0.05 arcsec, or ~0.3 kpc at 0.5

4 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey The GOODS space fields The GOODS HST fields: HDF-North & CDF-South ~33x solid angle of combined HDF-N+S central fields ~ 4x solid angle of combined HDF-N+S flanking fields ~2.5x solid angle of WFPC2 Groth Strip ~22 x 35 h Mpc comoving transverse extent at z = 3 Both fields at high galactic & ecliptic latitude, with low zodiacal & galactic foregrounds, N(HI), stellar & radio contamination, etc. KEY FEATURE: Simultaneous occurrence of : Area………………………0.1 sq.deg Sensitivity………………galaxies and AGN up to z~6-7 Angular resolution……0.5 kpc at 0.5

5 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey We almost give you the Full Moon

6 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey GOODS/ACS field layout 5 epochs/field, spaced by 45 days, simultaneous V,i,z bands CDF-S: Aug 02 - Feb 03 HDF-N: Nov 02 - May 03 Four more epochs in HDF-N by Aug 04 Five more epochs in both fields in ~ 1 year

7 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey ACS B = 27.2 V = 27.5 i = 26.8 z = 26.7 WFPC2 B = 27.9 V = 28.2 I = 27.6 m ~ AB mag; S/N=10 Diffuse source, 0.5 diameter Add ~ 0.9 mag for stellar sources

8 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey 5-Epoch stack

9 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey SIRTF Imaging GOODS sensitivity σ limiting flux μJy 5-σ limiting AB mag

10 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey GOODS-South [SST/IRAC & HST/ACS] ACS F850LP SST IRAC

11 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Galaxies at High Redshift Theory predicts that dark matter structures form at z~20-30 It does not clearly predict galaxies, because we do not fully understand star formation We need to push empirical studies of galaxy evolution to the highest redshifts We collected the deepest and largest quality samples of galaxies at z~4 through ~6 B 435 V 606 z 850 Unattenuated Spectrum Spectrum Attenuated by IGM B 435 V 606 i 775 z 850 Z~4

12 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey LBG color selection B-dropouts, z~4 V-dropouts, z~5

13 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Galaxies at z~6 (~6.8% of the cosmic age) S123 #5144: m(z) = 25.3 ACS/grism, Keck/LRIS & VLT/FORS2 observations confirm z=5.83 Dickinson et al. 2003

14 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey B 435 V 606 i 775 z 850 Galaxies at z~6

15 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Observed redshift distribution B V i Z=5.78 Z=5.83 Z=6.24? Spectra from Bunker et al. 2003; Stanway et al. 2003; Vanzella et al and the GOODS Team

16 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey LBG spectroscopy 3 < z < 6: examples Dawson, Stern, Spinrad, Madau et al.: 1 ok night with DEIMOS spectrograph, May 2003 targeting B, V, and i- dropout selected LBG candidates Good success for B- and V- dropouts considering sky conditions No additional secure confirmations of i-dropouts [OIII] serendip.

17 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey …some more examples… [OIII]

18 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey …more examples…

19 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey The history of the cosmic star formation activity: We found that at z~6 the cosmic star formation activity was nearly as vigorous as it was at its peak, between z~2 and z~3. Dust obscuration not truly constrained Escaping UV radiation only a small fraction Large progress with SIRTF Selection effects Estimated from detailed numerical simulations: Found the input LF that minimizes for colors, sizes and n(m) Giavalisco et al. 2003

20 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Still uncertainty on measures Bouwens et al LF still not well constrained Clean z~6 color selection still missing Cosmic variance still not understood Will use SST data to define z~6 sample Will double exp time in GOODS

21 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Area is key at very high redshift Cosmic variance is empirically unknown, but obviously important Very dangerous to base conclusions on small fields (eg. UDF), no matter how deep Also, care needed to match samples with largely different sensitivity IR-based selection needed (IRAC) Down to z(AB) =5 GOODS ~ 1 galaxies/arcmin 2 UDF ~ 1.5 galaxies/arcmin 2

22 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey HUDF vs. GOODS GOODS CDFS – 13 orbitsHUDF – 400 orbits

23 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Morphology of i-band dropouts Candidates for galaxies at redshifts greater than 6

24 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Defining i-band dropouts Selecting UDF samples with same criteria as the GOODS samples (eg. S/N(B,v)<~2) misses lots of galaxies, including a number of spectroscopically confirmed ones Color selection using IR photometry is critical Equally important: we need larger multi- surveys to constraint SF at z>6

25 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey rest-optical & -IR at z~6 SST IRAC detections of z~6 galaxies => stellar population & dust fitting possible Dickinson et al in prep ch1, 3.6 m rest =5300A ch2, 4.5 m rest =6600A

26 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Stiavelli, Fall & Panagia 2004 Did we find the sources Responsible for the Reionization at z~6?

27 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Evolution of M* ? Possible evidence of evolution of M* Here absolute magnitudes are Rs band (~1700 Ang rest) at z=3 (not 10 pc!) Slope alpha is assumed same as at z~3; real error most certainly larger, because of covariance. Note that alpha~ for UV LF of late type galaxies, even in the local and intermediate redshift universe. GOODS Ground [UnGRs] Giavalisco et al. 2004, in prep.

28 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Rest-frame m(1600) - B UV-Optical Color-Magnitude Diagrams at z ~ 3 and z ~ 4 Rest-frame B-band Papovich et al. 2003

29 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Luminosity Density versus Color and Redshift increase of ~33% U- and B- dropouts have similar UV-Optical color-magnitude "trends. Rest-frame UV luminosity density roughly comparable at z ~ 3 and 4. Increase of ~33% in the rest- frame B-band luminosity density from z ~ 4 to 3. UV-Optical color reddens from z ~ 4 to 3, which implies an increase in the stellar-mass/light ratio. Suggests that the stellar mass is increasing by > 33% growth in B- band luminosity density. Papovich et al. 2003

30 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Implications for Galaxy Evolution Dickinson, Papovich, Ferguson, & Budavari 2003

31 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Implications for Galaxy Evolution Dickinson, Papovich, Ferguson, & Budavari 2003 GOODS; Papovich et al. 2003

32 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Stellar mass & star formation PAH + continuum (24 m) UV Far IR (GTO) Optical + near-IR + nebular lines Mass: Rest-frame near-IR (e.g., rest-frame K-band at z~3), provides best photometric measure of total stellar content Reduces range of M/L( ) for different stellar populations Minimizes effects of dust obscuration Star formation: Use many independent indicators for to calibrate star formation (obscured & open) in ordinary starbursts (e.g. LBGs) at z > 2. mid- to far-IR (SIRTF/MIPS); rest-frame UV (e.g, U-band); radio (VLA, ATCA); sub-mm (SCUBA, SEST); nebular lines (spectroscopy) Stellar mass fitting Measuring star formation

33 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Testing the Hierarchical Cosmology Hierarchical models predict a simple scaling relation of galaxy size with redshift: –Baryonic matter of mass-fraction m d settles into disks with a fraction j d of the halo angular momenta. The disk radii are –The dark-matter halo radii grow as

34 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Expectations Size evolution at fixed circular velocity: –R ~ H -1 (z) Size evolution at fixed mass: –R ~ H -2/3 (z) Log-normal size distribution proportional to the spin parameter Disk-like morphologies Fall & Efstathiou 1980; Mo, Mao & White 1998; Dalcanton, Spergel & Summers 1997; Bowens & Silk 2002

35 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey The Evolution of galaxy size Standard ruler R~H(z) -2/3 R~H(z) -1 First measures at these redshifts Testing key tenets of the theory We found that galaxies grow hierarchically Major improvements with full-dept ACS Will add point at z~6 Ferguson et al. 2003

36 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Proto Spirals or Proto Ellipticals? B dropouts z~4 disks spheroids C 5log r 80 /r 20 spheroids disks Ferguson et al The theory predicts that early galaxies are disks. At z~ 4 we found a mix of disks and spheroids The z~4 galaxies do not seem to be primeval. Next: the z~5 and z~6 galaxies

37 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Morphology of Lyman Break Galaxies at z~4 Sersic profile fits and Sersic indices: [Ravindranath et al. 2004] Irregulars: (n < 0.5) Disks: (0.5 > n > 1.0)

38 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Morphology of Lyman Break Galaxies at z~4 Bulges (n > 3.0) Central compact component / point sources? (n = 5.0)

39 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey LBGs at z~4-5: disks or spheroids? Ravindranath et al Theory predicts that when they form undisturbed, galaxies are disks. Data show that a significant number of z~4-5 LBGs are disks; spheroids are present, too.

40 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey LBGs morphology There appears to be a correlation between UV luminosity and size of LBGs at z~4 and z~3

41 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Rotation curves at z~2 GOODS large area and angular resolution enabled the first systematic kinematical studies of galaxies at z~2 Erb et al Steidel et al GOODS-N galaxies morphologically selected

42 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Rotation curves at z~2 What is the relationship between morphology and kinematics? HDF-BX1397 Seeing is crucial!! Imagine what JWST will do Only 3 out of 13 galaxies show evidence of coherent velocity field/shear Erb et al Steidel et al. 2004

43 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Galaxy kinematics at z~2 Erb et al. 2004; Steidel et al Compact galaxies appear to have larger kinematics

44 Ravindranath et al –Sersic indices n<2 –Rest-frame M B <-19.5 –Photometric redshifts

45 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Disk galaxy evolution from GOODS Ravindranath et al Tendency for smaller sizes at z~1 (30% smaller) Number-densities are relatively constant to z~1

46 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Using Sne to Measure the Evolution of SF Dahlem et al. 2004, in press Core Collapse Type Ia

47 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey GOODS weak lensing program: mapping dark matter in space and time Galaxy-galaxy shear –GOODS is measuring Shear vs. redshift Shear on angular scales < 2 arcmin –Measure dark-matter halo profiles –Evolution of M/L with redshift –Test the galaxy-in-peak paradigm –Shear is dominated by non-linear fluctuations Insensitive to CDM large-scale power spectrum (shape and normalization): complementary to WMAP Sensitive to cosmic energy contents through angular-diameter distance and growth-rate of perturbations

48 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Weak Lensing: Mapping the Growth of Dark Matter Galaxy-galaxy shear around bright galaxies Direct measure of dark matter HST-unique science at these and larger redshifts SDSS-like quality measures at z~0.5 Huge improvements over previous HST surveys (e.g. MDS) Casertano et al SDSS at z~0.1 Lenses: 19

49 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Clustering at z~3 Measured at z~ 3 from a very large sample of U-band dropouts (2300 galaxies) Selected from KPNO (U) and Subaru + Supreme (BR) large- area (25x25 arcmin), deep images (Capak et al. 2003, part of GOODS) Sample goes down to R<26 Spatial correlation length is smaller than that of brighter samples at the same redshifts Lee et al. 2004, in preparation

50 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Clustering at High Redshift Notes: 1.r 0 from Limber inversion of ( 2.GOODS redshift distribution function from numerical simulations Adelberger et al. (1998, 2002) Giavalisco et al. (1998) Giavalisco & Dickinson (2001) New measure consistent with presence of clustering segregation GOODS

51 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Halos and Galaxies at z~3-5 Good agreement with theory Implied halo mass in the range 5x10 10 – M O 1-σ scatter between mass and SFR smaller that 100% Giavalisco & Dickinson 2001 Porciani & Giavalisco 2002 Lee et al. 2004, in prep.

52 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey When did Super-Massive Black Holes Form? Chandra and Hubble working together: we found 7 sources detected by Chandra but not detected by HST. Among them, most likely there are: The most distant active galaxies (super- massive black holes) ever observed, at z>7 ? SIRTF will determine whether this interpretation is correct or not

53 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey The Most Distant Black Holes (z>7)?

54 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Off-nuclear X-ray sources Hornschemeier et al X-ray luminosity of sources Comparable to integrated Point-source Luminosity of Local galaxies. X-ray variability shows that Several are likely accreating Single BH.

55 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey GOODS discovery of a significant population of hidden SMBH Meg Urry, Ezequiel Treister, Jeffrey van Duyne (Yale University) & GOODS AGN team

56 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Number z-band magnitude HST ACS z-band counts Treister et al faintbright obscured AGN normal AGN

57 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey photz Treister et al Redshift distribution (GOODS-N) Number Redshift

58 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey photz Treister et al Redshift Redshift distribution (GOODS-S) Number

59 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Optical/X-ray picture so far: GOODS HST data suggest population of high-z obscured AGN Consistent with AGN unification –constant ratio of obscured:unobscured Implies missed X-ray sources, incomplete spectral identifications, missed optical sources Will be visible in infrared! Are visible with Spitzer IRAC!

60 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey First look at Spitzer IRAC data for GOODS (at 8 m) Observed N(>S) Predicted N(>S) for obscured AGN

61 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey First look at Spitzer IRAC data for GOODS (at 3.6 m) Observed N(>S) Predicted N(>S) for obscured AGN observed counts predicted counts

62 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey The GOODS ACS Treasury Program and The Hubble Higher-z Supernova Search Team A Higher-z Supernova Search Piggybacking on the ACS Survey 134 orbits ToO for 6-8 SNe Ia at 1.2

63 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Finding High-z Sne GOODS found 6 of the 7 highest redshift (z>1) supernovae currently known Search completed: 43 SNe identified ~25 Type Ia candidates at z>1 –10 follow-ups by ToO program –12 spectroscopic confirmations so far –3 highest-z spectral confirmations (z>1.3) Four Additional Epochs of HDFN in 2004: –Riess et al. and Perlmutter et al. Eight Additional Epochs of HDFN and CDFS in 2004 Riess et al. High-z SN Artemis from CDF-S ACS observations

64 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Searching for SNe Ia with ACS 5 z-band epochs, spaced by 45 days, simultaneous v,i band, 120 tiles CDFS=08/02-02/03 HDFN=11/02-05/03

65 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey 2003ak (1.57) 2002fz (0.839) 2003aj (1.4) 2002ga (0.988) 2002kb (0.474) 2002fv (~1.0) 2002lg (0.61) 2002fw (1.3) 2002hs (0.388) 2002hp (1.3) 2002hq (0.74) 2002kd (0.735) 2002fx (~1.8) 2003al (0.91) 2002ke (0.578) 2002kc (0.214) 2002hr (0.526) 2002fy (0.88) 2002ht (?) CDFS 2003dz (0.48) 2003er (0.63) 2003be (0.64) 2003dx (0.46) 2003bb (0.89) 2003bc (0.51) 2003ew (0.66) 2003eu (0.76) 2003ba (0.47) 2002kh (0.71) 2003et (0.83) 2003en (0.54) 2003es (0.968) 2003en (0.54) 2003dy (1.37) 2003ea (0.89) Vilas (0.86) 2003eb (0.92) 2003bd (0.67) 2003eq (0.85) 2002kl (0.39) 2003az (1.27) 2002ki (1.14) HDFN

66 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey z v b i SN Ia SN II Color Selection: An example b v i z SN Ia UV deficit

67 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Color Discrimination

68 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Our first higher-z SN Ia, Aphrodite Aphrodite (z=1.3) ACS grism spectrum NICMOS F110W ACS F850lp viz Highest z spectrum of a SN

69 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Our Second Higher-z SN Ia, Thoth red, elliptical host Epoch 3Epoch Images Subtractions discovery z=1.3

70 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Rich Field of 4 SNe Ia HDFN, tile n4z_26/29 Villas (z=0.94) Borg (z=1.34) Anguta (z=0.67) McEnroe (z=0.90) grism

71 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Gilgamesh z=1.6 ACS f850lp Nicmos F110W F160W discovery~+10 days ~+20 days

72 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey 16 SN Ia Light Curves ToO

73 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey The HST Advantage ToO Highest 2 Ground- based z=1.06 z=1.20 z=1.30 HST-ACS

74 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey SN Ia Spectra at High-z ACS indicates Ca 3750 A See Riess et al 2003, astro-ph , and Blakeslee et al 2003, ApJ #1 #2 #3

75 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Matching Shapes and Colors Light Curves Shapes at z>1 match those at z<0.1 B-V and U-B colors at z>1 match those at z<0.1 U-B: Most chemically sensitive z =-0.45+/-0.02 z>0.6: =-0.47+/-0.02

76 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey The New SN Ia Hubble Diagram 97ff 6 of the 7 highest redshift SNe Ia

77 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Is Cosmic Acceleration Real? ?

78 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey A Cosmic Jerk: Deceleration gave way to Acceleration,

79 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Expansion Kinematics (How Long Has This Been Going On?) z~ , ~5 GYR ago present acceleration past deceleration

80 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (If the Dark Energy is Lambda), Updated Constraints factor of 7 improvement! Riess et al 1998; High-z Team New

81 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Probing Dark Energy We have doubled our knowledge of w 0 and w in 1 year with HST Einsteins model now looks better than ever, a way to go… Two fundamental properties/clues of dark energy: its strength, w 0, AND is it dynamic or static, i.e. is w=0? Einsteins w0w0 w0w0 W

82 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Closing in on Dark Energy: The Future W W Rejection of lambda: i.e., or would be a tremendous Breakthrough! GOODS has been an effective technology demonstrator for SNAP/JDEM CFHT L, ESSENCE, Sloan DSS, Carnegie There should be another 8-12 Type Ia at z>1 in ~1 yr time frame

83 GOODS: Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey Summary GOODS exploring fundamental issues of cosmic origins Large-scale star formation in place at less than ~7% of the cosmic time: Cosmic star formation (as traced by UV light) varies mildly at 32 Massive galaxies in place at z~1; some galaxies are massive at z~2-3 Spatial clustering of star-forming galaxies depends on UV luminosity: decreases for fainter galaxies –Total mass and star-formation activity correlate: more massive halos host more star formation; scaling consistent with CDM spectrum –Implies relatively large total masses: 5x10 10 – M O Evolution of galaxy size at low, high z consistent with hierarchical growth Evidence of supermassive BH (AGN) already at z>7 Constraints to the evolution of LF of QSO at z>3


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