Presentation on theme: "Licensing Agreement I have read, understand, and agree to the terms and conditions of the licensing agreement set forth by Awesome Guides, Inc. for this."— Presentation transcript:
Licensing Agreement I have read, understand, and agree to the terms and conditions of the licensing agreement set forth by Awesome Guides, Inc. for this virtual field trip CD, and the virtual field trip series. Failure to abide to this agreement constitutes criminal activity by federal, state and local laws. By pressing the accept button below, or by using any part of this legally or otherwise purchased/acquired show, you are entering into a legal and binding contract and accept and agree to the terms as outlined by the licensing agreement. AcceptDecline
Navigation Index NOTE: Navigation Buttons Work in TV Presentation View ONLY End Show Begin Show What is natural gas? What is natural gas 2? Natural gas cycle Natural gas cycle 2 Natural gas extraction Nat. gas plant locations Power overview Control Room Power flow diagrams Combined cycle power Gas/steam turbines Gas/steam turbines 2 Power generation Steam turbine blades Gas turbine operation Steam turbine engine Cooling towers Environmental impacts Water chemistry lab Environmental impacts 2 Nitrogen oxides Nitrogen oxides 2 Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide 2 Methane Methane 2
Navigation Index NOTE: Navigation Buttons Work in TV Presentation View ONLY End Show Begin Show Average emissions in the US Comparison of Emissions from power generation technol. Water resource use Water resouese use 2 Credits TV presentation instructions
Natural Gas Power Facility Virtual Field Trip (Your guide to the operations of natural gas power generation) by: Awesome Guides, Inc. Pen
Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of buried plants and animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years. The energy that the plants and animals originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of carbon. It is colorless, shapeless, and in its pure form, odorless. What is Natural Gas? Natural gas is found both on and off shore!
Natural gas is combusted to generate electricity, enabling stored energy to be transformed into usable power. Natural gas is a nonrenewable resource because it cannot be replenished on a human time frame.
Natural Gas Cycle! Natural gas is treated at a refinery!
Natural Gas Cycle! Most natural gas is transported via pipeline!
Christmas Tree underground natural gas extraction Natural Gas Extraction
Only a small number free- flowing gas formations exist in U.S. gas fields. Therefore, a pumping system is required to extract the gas. A "horse head" pump rocks up and down lifting a rod in and out of a well bore, bringing gas to the surface. Natural Gas Reserves and Extraction
Natural Gas Power Plant Locations
Natural Gas Power Generation Overview Water circulates (blue in diagram) from the boiler (steam) to the turbine, and returns to the boiler, after the condenser, as water. Gas Burners
Control Room Facilities Operator Monitoring Controls
Power Generation Flow Diagrams
. Combined-cycle plants natural gas in a two- step electrical generation system. Combined Cycle Power Generation
Condensing Steam Turbine Generator Natural gas, burned like a jet engine, drives the generator! Gas Turbine Gas and Steam Turbines
Oil or natural gas can run gas turbines. Gas turbines, burn fuel in a high-pressure combustion chamber producing hot gases that pass directly through a turbine, spinning a generator to produce electricity. The turbine also spins a compressor to provide high-pressure air to the combustion chamber. This cycle is different from the steam turbine, where the heat of combustion turns water to steam, which pushes the turbine. Steam Turbine Blades
The most efficient way for utilities to use gas or oils is in a combined-cycle system, which combines two means of producing electricity. Hot gases from the combustion chamber spin the gas turbine and the generator to make electricity. The system then pipes the still-hot exhaust gases leaving the combustion turbine to a 'waste heat' steam boiler where their heat produces steam. The steam turns a turbine, connected to a second generator, to produce electricity. Condensers convert the steam to water that returns to the boiler to repeat the cycle.
Environmental Impacts Environmental Monitoring Stations (EMS) are used as an effective method of recording meteorological & environmental data.
Water Chemistry Lab
What are the Environmental Impacts? Compact flue gas analyzer for combustion analysis, and boiler emissions monitoring.
Nitrogen Oxides Typical NOx Emissions in Major Cities
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) include various nitrogen compounds like nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide. These compounds play an important role in atmospheric reactions that create ground-level ozone and acid rain. Ozone is formed when and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of heat and sunlight. Nitrogen oxides form when fuels are burned at high temperatures. The two major sources of nitrogen oxides are transportation vehicles and stationary combustion sources, such as electric utility and industrial boilers. Nitrogen Oxides
Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Burning fossil fuels releases carbon, stored underground for millions of years, into the atmosphere. Carbon in fossil fuels is transformed into carbon dioxide, the predominant gas contributing to the greenhouse effect. Combustion of fossil fuels increases emissions of CO 2 and other gases, such as methane. Human endeavors accelerate heat-trapping processes in the atmosphere, gradually raising average worldwide temperatures. While CO 2 is absorbed and released at nearly equal rates by natural processes on the earth, this equilibrium is disrupted when large amounts of carbon dioxide are released to the atmosphere by human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon Dioxide
Methane Typical Methane Emissions in North America
Methane is a greenhouse gases that traps heat in the atmosphere, resulting in a greenhouse effect. It is the 2nd-most prevalent greenhouse gas emitted by U.S. sources. Methanes contribution to global warming is significant and is estimated to be 21 times more effective at trapping heat in the atmosphere than CO 2. Currently, methane represents approximately 10% of the greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. activities that contribute to global warming. Over the last two centuries, methane's concentration in the atmosphere is more than 2x due to several human activities, including municipal solid waste (MSW) in producing natural gas and petroleum, mining coal, and burning fossil fuels. Methane emissions from the production and processing of fossil fuels contribute to almost 1/3 of the total methane emitted in the U.S.
The average emission rates in the US from natural gas-fired generation are: 1135 lbs/MWh of CO 2, 0.1 lbs/MWh of SO 2, and 1.7 lbs/MWh of NOx Compared to the average air emissions from coal- fired generation, natural gas produces 1/2 as much CO 2, less than 1/3 as much NOx, and 1% as much SO 2 Thermal Scan of Exhaust Smokes Stacks photo provided by Sierra Pacific Industries
Comparison of Emissions from Power Generation
Water Resource Use Uses of Public Water Supply In the US 1995
Water Resource Use The burning of natural gas in combustion turbines requires very little water. However, a natural gas- fired boiler and combined cycle systems do require water for cooling purposes. If power plants remove water from a lake or river, fish and other aquatic life can be killed, affecting animals and people who depend on these aquatic resources. Many power plants use ground water rather than surface water.
Credits Mayfield Electric & Water Systems
TV Presentation Instructions 1.Each presentation opens to slide 1 of the navigation index list of slides. Press button to go only to the LAST slide viewed. Click speaker on slides with voice to replay sound. 2. You can easily navigate through the index of slides or the virtual field trip slides by using the up (back)* and down (forward) keyboard arrow keys, the forward button, or by clicking the left mouse button (forward only). 3. Use the buttons to go to the next slide during the virtual field trip or to a particular slide from the index page; use the button to return to the first index slide. 4. You can always press the button from an index slide to begin the field trip starting at the first virtual slide. 5. You can end a slide show by returning to any index slide using by pressing the button. End Show Return to Index Page 1 * You will need to press the up (back) arrow key twice or more on slides with speaker (voice) icons on them.
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Drawing on Slides To mark up slides during a presentation……….. To mark up slides during a presentation……….. During your slide show, right-click and point to Pointer Options. Note You must be in Slide Show view to see the Pointer Options command. To switch to the Slide Show view, on the View menu, click Slide Show. During your slide show, right-click and point to Pointer Options. Note You must be in Slide Show view to see the Pointer Options command. To switch to the Slide Show view, on the View menu, click Slide Show. Click Pen. Click Pen. Hold your mouse button down as you write or draw on your slides. Hold your mouse button down as you write or draw on your slides. You can also choose a different color for marking by pointing to Pen Color and clicking a color. If you don't want to disrupt the continuity of your presentation by right-clicking and navigating through menus, or you are using a Macintosh platform, you can use the keyboard shortcut CTRL+P to switch to using the pen and CTRL+U or ESC to revert back to the automatic pointer. You can also choose a different color for marking by pointing to Pen Color and clicking a color. If you don't want to disrupt the continuity of your presentation by right-clicking and navigating through menus, or you are using a Macintosh platform, you can use the keyboard shortcut CTRL+P to switch to using the pen and CTRL+U or ESC to revert back to the automatic pointer. Your markings are erased automatically when you move to the next slide. To move to the next slide when you are using the pen, use the DOWN ARROW key. Your markings are erased automatically when you move to the next slide. To move to the next slide when you are using the pen, use the DOWN ARROW key. Back to Usage Slide