Presentation on theme: "Licensing Agreement I have read, understand, and agree to the terms and conditions of the licensing agreement set forth by Awesome Guides, Inc. for this."— Presentation transcript:
Licensing Agreement I have read, understand, and agree to the terms and conditions of the licensing agreement set forth by Awesome Guides, Inc. for this virtual field trip CD, and the virtual field trip series. Failure to abide to this agreement constitutes criminal activity by federal, state and local laws. By pressing the accept button below, or by using any part of this legally or otherwise purchased/acquired show, you are entering into a legal and binding contract and accept and agree to the terms as outlined by the licensing agreement. AcceptDecline
Navigation Index NOTE: Navigation Buttons Work in TV Presentation View ONLY End Show Begin Show Surface mining Coal facts Coal and coal mining Mining Methods Types of Coal Anthracite coal Shaft Mining Bituminous coal Sub-bituminous Lignite coal Coal storage Coal-fired power plant Coal supply Pulverizer Boiler Coal-fired boiler Boiler cleaning Turbine, generator Generator room Condensers Control room Results of burning coal Nitrogen oxides Re-burning technologies Nox Re-burners Carbon dioxide Sulfur dioxide SO 2 Deposition
Navigation Index NOTE: Navigation Buttons Work in TV Presentation View ONLY End Show Water discharge Water Purification Water resource use Effect of pollution discharge management Substation, transformer, transmission lines Credits TV Presentation Instructions Sulfur Dioxide Map SO2 stripper Mercury/mercury compounds Methane Environmental impact summary Electrostatic precipitator Electo-static diagram Electro-static movie Solid Waste Generation Precipitator, ash systems Condenser and cooling water Cooling tower and environ. impact Cooling tower and environ. Impact Cooling tower diagram
Coal Fired Power Virtual Field Trip (Your tour through the operation and environmental impacts of power generation) Awesome Guides, Inc. Pen
A surface coal mine of sub- bituminous ( 4, ,000 BTUs) and lignite, giving the coal a brown tint. This large surface coal mine uses draglines and shovels. Coal is not processed, it is simply crushed and screened, then sold to generating plants. Bituminous ( 12,500 BTUs) coal has almost no sulfur, which makes it appealing to coal burning power plants. Coal is moved via large coal trains
Coal is a fossil fuel formed from the decomposition of organic materials that have been subjected to geologic heat and pressure over millions of years. Coal is a nonrenewable resource because it cannot be replenished within a human time frame.
The activities involved in generating electricity from coal include mining, transporting to power plants, and burning the coal for power generation. Initially, coal is extracted from surface or underground mines. The coal is often cleaned or washed at the coal mine to remove impurities before it is transported to the power facility by train, barge, or truck. Finally, at the power facility, the coal is burned in boilers to produce steam. The steam is then run through a turbine to generate electricity.
Coal is a fossil fuel…a sedimentary organic rock containing more than 50% carbonaceous material by weight, and composed largely of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. Coal began with ancient plants that grew in swamps millions of years ago. Geological processes over vast spans of time, compress and alter plant remains, increasing the % of carbon, producing various ranks of coal. Mine worker
Dragline scraper The four recognized ranks of coal are: anthracite, bituminous coal, sub- bituminous coal and lignite. In the United States, coal is ranked according to its heating value, fixed carbon and volatile matter content and, its caking characteristics during combustion.
Anthracite – Is used primarily for residential and commercial space heating, Anthracite is the highest rank of coal. Its hard, brittle, lustrous black texture contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. It is often called "hard coal." Freshly-mined anthracite usually contains less than 15 percent moisture content. Its typical heat content is 15 million Btu per short ton or less.
Shaft Mining Operations
Bituminous - Dense coal black/dark brown color usually with well-defined bands of contrasting bright and dull material. Its used primarily to generate steam for electric power. Large quantities are used for power and heating applications. In active U.S. mining regions, bituminous coal is the most abundant. It has a a moisture content of less than 20 percent and a heat content range between 21 to 30 million Btu per ton in a moist, mineral and matter-free basis. Of the four ranks, bituminous coal accounts for over half (51 %) of demonstrated reserves. Bituminous coal is found primarily east of the Mississippi River, with the greatest amounts in Illinois, Kentucky and West Virginia. Bituminous - Dense coal black/dark brown color usually with well-defined bands of contrasting bright and dull material. Its used primarily to generate steam for electric power. Large quantities are used for power and heating applications. In active U.S. mining regions, bituminous coal is the most abundant. It has a a moisture content of less than 20 percent and a heat content range between 21 to 30 million Btu per ton in a moist, mineral and matter-free basis. Of the four ranks, bituminous coal accounts for over half (51 %) of demonstrated reserves. Bituminous coal is found primarily east of the Mississippi River, with the greatest amounts in Illinois, Kentucky and West Virginia.
Sub-bituminous – In one quality, this coal can be dull, dark brown to black in color and soft and crumbly. It can also exist as bright, jet black in color, hard and strong. Used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation, sub-bituminous coal has properties ranging between those of lignite and bituminous coal. The heat content of sub-bituminous coal is from 17 to 18 million Btu per ton. All sub- bituminous coal (38 percent of the demonstrated reserve base) is west of the Mississippi, mostly in Montana and Wyoming.
Lignite - This coal has a brownish-black color, a high moisture content and is the lowest rank of coal. It is often called "brown coal" and is used almost entirely as fuel for steam-electric power generation. It accounts for slightly less than 10 percent of the demonstrated reserve base and is found mostly in Montana, Texas and North Dakota.
When coal arrives at the power plant large amounts are stored on site in the coal yard. Coal is piled up in the coal yard and transferred to the boiler as needed.
Coal Supply Processed coal from the coal yard is delivered by a conveyor belt, to the boiler!
Pulverizer The coal is pulverized, or crushed to a fine powder, then mixed with air and blown into the boiler, or furnace for combustion. Enclosed conveyer belts carry coal to the pulverizer!
Boiler Heated water turns into steam in the boiler.
Flames inside the boiler Coal-Fired Boiler
This boiler is shut down for cleaning!
Control Room Plant operations are monitored, using very little human power!
Smoke rising from the cooling towers above is 98%, plus, water vapor. Regulations require the control of emissions. Results of Burning Coal
Nitrogen oxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, contribute to smog and acid precipitation (rain). Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are hazardous to human health and the environment. Acid rain harms aquatic ecosystems (rivers, lakes and wetlands) as well as forests and crops. Nitrogen oxides are a component of smog and ground level ozone primarily produced by the combustion of fossil fuels. Main causes are vehicles, power generation and industrial processes. The health impacts of smog exposure include impaired lung function in the short term and accelerated deterioration of lung function over the long term. Children and individuals with respiratory problems are at a greater risk. Nitrogen Oxides
Re-burning technologies for control of NOx emissions.
Carbon Dioxide Burning fossil fuels releases carbon into the atmosphere that has been stored underground for millions of years. The carbon in fossil fuels is transformed, by combustion, into carbon dioxide, which is the predominant gas contributing to the greenhouse effect.
Sulfur dioxide Emissions from the burning of coal react with water and oxygen in the air to form sulfate aerosols acidic compounds that fall to the Earth in the form of acid rain.
The Top of a SO2 Control Stripper
Methane Methane is one of many greenhouse gases that trap heat in the atmosphere, resulting in a greenhouse effect. It is the 2nd-most prevalent greenhouse gas emitted by the U.S. Methanes contribution to global warming is significant because it is 21 times more effective at trapping heat in the atmosphere than CO 2. The blue flame is methane gas. Other colors represent other gases.
Burning coal produces carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). These gases are vented from the boiler. Bottom ash, is made of coarse fragments that fall to the bottom of the boiler, as a by- product of burning coal. Fly ash, which is very light, exits the boiler along with hot gases. An electrostatic precipitator (a huge air filter) removes 99.4% of fly ash before the flue gases are dispersed into the atmosphere. Environmental Impact Summary
Solid Waste Generation Fly is used to make portland cement concrete. This is one of the largest uses for CCPs (coal combustion products)
Fly ash is trapped in the silo, loaded, (red truck) and sold. It is and used in the making concrete! Precipitator, Ash Systems
Cooling water is drawn into the plant and circulated through condensers, which cool the steam discharged from the turbine. Steam from the turbine also passes through the condensers in separate pipes from the cooling water. Condenser/Cooling Water System Hyperbolic cooling tower water vapor
The cold water is warmed by the steam, which condenses back into pure water and circulates back into the boiler to begin the process of generating electricity again. Cooling water, now warm from the heat exchange in the condensers, is released from the plant. Condenser/Cooling Water System Cylindrical cooling tower water vapor
Much of the heat produced from burning coal is wasted. A typical coal power plant uses only 33-35% of the coal's heat to produce electricity. The majority of heat is released into the atmosphere or absorbed by the cooling water. Function of Cooling Towers, and Environmental Impact
Once billions of gallons of water cycle through a coal-fired power plant, and released into lakes, rivers, or the ocean. This water is now hotter (by up to 20-25° F) than the water that receives it. This "thermal pollution" can decrease fertility and increase heart rates in fish. Sometimes, power plants also add chlorine or other toxic chemicals to their cooling water to decrease algae growth. These chemicals are also discharged back into the environment.. Function of Cooling Towers, and Environmental Impact
The warm water from the condensers is circulated through the cooling towers, where it is sprayed over a packing in the base of the tower and cooled by the upward draft of air. A small amount of water is lost by evaporation and this is made up from the river. Some coastal power stations use direct cooling rather than cooling towers. Function of Cooling Towers, and Environmental Impact
Concrete Shell Diagonal support columns and cold are inlet Drift Eliminators Hot Water Spray Heat Exchange Packing Cold Water Pond Hot Water Inlet Draught Cooling Tower Counter Flow
Water Discharge Impacts
To reduce corrosion, water is purified for use in the boiler tubes. Wastewater systems within the plant collect water that was used to clean pipes and other equipment. Sludge from the water purification process and other processes are also collected. Waste water is pumped out of the plant into a holding pond and treated. Water Purification (Holding Pond)
Water Resource Use
Water Resource Use
Effect of Pollution Discharge Management Signing of the Clean Air Act July 1989
Once the electricity is generated, transformers increase the voltage so it can be carried across the transmission lines. When electricity is delivered to substations in cities and towns, the voltage flowing into the distribution lines is reduced and then reduced again to distribute electricity to the customers. Substation, transformer, transmission lines
TV Presentation Instructions 1.Each presentation opens to slide 1 of the navigation index list of slides. Press button to go only to the LAST slide viewed. Click speaker on slides with voice to replay sound. 2. You can easily navigate through the index of slides or the virtual field trip slides by using the up (back)* and down (forward) keyboard arrow keys, the forward button, or by clicking the left mouse button (forward only). 3. Use the buttons to go to the next slide during the virtual field trip or to a particular slide from the index page; use the button to return to the first index slide. 4. You can always press the button from an index slide to begin the field trip starting at the first virtual slide. 5. You can end a slide show by returning to any index slide using by pressing the button. End Show Return to Index Page 1 * You will need to press the up (back) arrow key twice or more on slides with speaker (voice) icons on them.
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Drawing on Slides To mark up slides during a presentation……….. To mark up slides during a presentation……….. During your slide show, right-click and point to Pointer Options. Note You must be in Slide Show view to see the Pointer Options command. To switch to the Slide Show view, on the View menu, click Slide Show. During your slide show, right-click and point to Pointer Options. Note You must be in Slide Show view to see the Pointer Options command. To switch to the Slide Show view, on the View menu, click Slide Show. Click Pen. Click Pen. Hold your mouse button down as you write or draw on your slides. Hold your mouse button down as you write or draw on your slides. You can also choose a different color for marking by pointing to Pen Color and clicking a color. If you don't want to disrupt the continuity of your presentation by right-clicking and navigating through menus, or you are using a Macintosh platform, you can use the keyboard shortcut CTRL+P to switch to using the pen and CTRL+U or ESC to revert back to the automatic pointer. You can also choose a different color for marking by pointing to Pen Color and clicking a color. If you don't want to disrupt the continuity of your presentation by right-clicking and navigating through menus, or you are using a Macintosh platform, you can use the keyboard shortcut CTRL+P to switch to using the pen and CTRL+U or ESC to revert back to the automatic pointer. Your markings are erased automatically when you move to the next slide. To move to the next slide when you are using the pen, use the DOWN ARROW key. Your markings are erased automatically when you move to the next slide. To move to the next slide when you are using the pen, use the DOWN ARROW key. Back to Usage Slide