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**Chemistry I Mr. Patel SWHS**

Unit 10: Gases Chemistry I Mr. Patel SWHS

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**Topic Outline MUST have a scientific calculator (not graphing)!!**

Properties of Gases (13.1, 14.1) Kinetic Molecular Theory (13.1) Temperature Conversions (14.1) Pressure Conversions (14.1) Empirical Gas Laws (14.2) Ideal Gases (14.3)

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**Nature and Properties of Gases**

Gases are easily compressible Flow easily (fluids) Assume the shape and volume of container Gases are described by four variables: Amount of gas (n) Volume (V) Pressure (P) Temperature (T) Kinetic theory – all particles are in constant motion …one exception

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**Kinetic Molecular Theory**

Particles have insignificant volume Large distance between particles No attractive or repulsive forces Motion is rapid and random Travel in straight line path until collisions Collisions are completely elastic KE is transferred without loss

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**Temperature When heating a gas, most energy goes into motion**

Average KE is related to temperature (K) All particles same average KE at room temp All motion stops at absolute zero 0 K or -273⁰C

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**Temperature Conversions**

Celsius to Kelvin: K = ⁰C Kelvin to Celsius: ⁰C = K - 273

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**Ex: Convert 924.8 K to Celsius.**

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Ex: The hottest planet in the solar system measured a temperature of 480 K on a certain day. What is this temperature in Celsius?

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Ex: The Rhinovirus reproduces especially well at nostril temperatures of 32.8⁰C. What is this temperature in Kelvin?

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**Gas Pressure Force exerted by gas per unit surface area**

Result of billions of simultaneous collisions Ex: Helium balloon Vacuum – No pressure no gas particles Barometer – device used to measure atmospheric pressure

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**Pressure Conversions Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)**

0⁰C = 273 K 1 atm 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = kPa (SI) These are conversion factors

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Ex: Convert 25.3 atm to mm Hg.

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**Ex: The air pressure for a certain tire is 109 kPa**

Ex: The air pressure for a certain tire is 109 kPa. What is this pressure in atmospheres?

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**Ex: The weather news gives the atmospheric pressure as 1. 07 atm**

Ex: The weather news gives the atmospheric pressure as 1.07 atm. What is this atmospheric pressure in mm Hg?

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Practice An experiment at Sandia National Labs in New Mexico is performed at torr. What is this pressure in atm? A bag of potato chips is sealed in a factory near sea level. The atmospheric pressure at the factory is mm Hg. The pressure inside the bag is the same. What is the pressure inside the bag of potato chips in kPa?

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Practice Solutions Answer: atm Answer: 1.01 kPa

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**The Empirical Gas Laws There are four empirical gas laws**

These laws relate the gas variables Empirical – based on observation

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**Boyle’s Law Relates Pressure and Volume Law: P1 V1 = P2 V2**

Inverse relationship If V then P

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**Ex: If the volume of the lungs is 2**

Ex: If the volume of the lungs is L during exhalation and the pressure is KPa, and the pressure during inhalation is KPa, what is the volume of the lungs during inhalation?

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**Charles’s Law Relates Temp and Volume Law: Direct relationship**

If T then V

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**Ex: If the volume of a gas at 25⁰C is 25**

Ex: If the volume of a gas at 25⁰C is 25.5 L, what is the temperature when the volume is 75.0 L?

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**Gay-Lussac’s Law Relates Pressure and Temp Law: Direct relationship**

If T then P

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**Ex: If the pressure of a gas at 75⁰C is 12**

Ex: If the pressure of a gas at 75⁰C is 12.5atm, what is the temperature when the pressure is 3.75 atm?

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Combined Gas Law Combination of the previous empirical laws

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**Avogadro’s Law Relates Moles and Volume Law: Direct relationship**

If n then V

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**Ex: If the moles of gas is 3**

Ex: If the moles of gas is 3.75 mol N2 is used to inflate a balloon to 0.250L, what is the volume when the moles of gas are tripled?

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The Empirical Laws The previous laws are useful when only two variables are changing…everything else is constant. They are laws for specific scenarios. It is possible to use the laws to create a law that is general in nature – not specific.

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**Ideal Gas Law Combines the previous observations.**

One of the most fundamental and important laws in chemistry. Describes a SINGLE gas. PRESSURE TEMPERATURE MOLES VOLUME GAS CONSTANT

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**Ideal Gases This is for ideal gases…not real gases.**

Many real gases behave as ideal gases. An ideal gas completely follows all the tenants of the Kinetic Molecular Theory.

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**atm∙L mol∙K Gas Constant – R This is a universal constant.**

It is important to memorize the value of this number with the CORRECT units. The value changes based on the units. R = atm∙L mol∙K

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**Implications of R on PV=nRT**

Previous laws – we could use any units as long as we were consistent. The units used in the ideal gas law are determined by our choice of R. If R = atm∙L/mol∙K is used: P must be in atm V must be in L T must be in K

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**Tips on Solving Gas Law Problems**

Write down all the variables that are known. Determine which variable you are looking for. Convert all variables to the correct units. Write down the correct law/equation. Rearrange equation. Plug in values and solve. See if your answer makes sense.

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**Ex: The gas in a spray can has a pressure of 103 kPa at 25 ⁰C**

Ex: The gas in a spray can has a pressure of 103 kPa at 25 ⁰C. The can is heated to 928 ⁰C. What is the resulting pressure?

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**Ex: A balloon has a volume of 30. 0L at 313K and a pressure of 1147**

Ex: A balloon has a volume of 30.0L at 313K and a pressure of mmHg. What is the volume at 0 ⁰C and 1 atm?

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**Ex: The temperature of a gas is 300. K and the volume is 821 L**

Ex: The temperature of a gas is 300.K and the volume is 821 L. The temperature of the gas is raised by 35.0 K. What is the new volume?

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**Ex: The volume of a sealed, rigid cylinder is 20. 0L**

Ex: The volume of a sealed, rigid cylinder is 20.0L. The pressure in the cylinder is 985 torr at 31 ⁰C. What is the effect when the temperature is lowered to 3.1 ⁰C?

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Ex: An isothermal system contains CO2 gas at 900 K with a pressure of 5.31 kPa. What is the volume of the gas?

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**Ex: At a pressure of 1. 00 atm, one mole of a gas is at 0⁰C**

Ex: At a pressure of 1.00 atm, one mole of a gas is at 0⁰C. What volume does it occupy?

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**Ex: A container with a volume of 3000. mL holds 32. 0 g CH4 gas at 25**

Ex: A container with a volume of mL holds 32.0 g CH4 gas at 25.0⁰C. What is the pressure within the container?

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**Ex: In a 3. 05L bottle, CO2 gas is heated to 298K at a pressure of 225**

Ex: In a 3.05L bottle, CO2 gas is heated to 298K at a pressure of kPa. How many grams of carbon dioxide gas are in the bottle?

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