2 Kinetic theory Particles in all forms of matter are in constant motion A gas is composed of particles, usually molecules or atoms.The particles in a gas move rapidly inconstant random motion.All collisions are perfectly elastic.
3 Physical behavior of a gas depends on: volumetemperaturepressure
4 Volume How much space occupied volume of a gas in a sealed container is the volume of the containergases not in sealed containers are uncontainedUnits can be milliliters, liters, cubic centimeters
5 Temperature Measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance same temperature = same average kinetic energytemperature measured using Kelvin scaleKelvin temperature = 0°C + 273no upper limit for temperaturelower limit = absolute zero 0 K = -273°C (no motion of particles)
6 To convert from Celsius to Kelvin—add 273 To convert from Kelvin to Celsius– subtract 273
7 Pressure force per area result of simultaneous collisions of billions of gas particlesunits of pressureatmospheresmm HgTorrPascal
8 Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) Standard temperature = 0°C = 273 KStandard pressure = 1 atm= 760 mm Hg= 760 Torr= 101 kPa
11 Avogadro’s Lawequal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particlesat STP1 mole (6.02 X 1023 particles) of any gas occupies 22.4 liters
12 Boyle’s LawFor a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure.in other words, if pressure goes down, volume goes up and vice versaP1V1 = P2V2
13 Charles’ LawThe volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constantin other words, if temperature increases, volume increases and vice versaV1 = V2T1 T2
14 Gay-Lusaac’s Law P1 = P2 T1 T2 The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume is kept constant.in other words, if temperature increases, pressure increases and vice versaP1 = P2T1 T2
15 Combined Gas Law P1V1 = P2V2 T1 T2 Combines Boyle’s Law, Charles’ Law, and Gay-Lusaac’s Law into oneP1V1 = P2V2T1 T2
16 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures At constant volume and temperature the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of each gas.Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 …..As soon as you see the words ‘over water’ in a problem, begin looking for P1 to subtract vapor pressure out of it and T1 which tells you the temperature to look up in the table so you will know how much to subtract.
17 Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT n = number of moles R = ideal gas constant T = temperature in KelvinsP = pressureV = volumeif pressure is in atmospheres R = atm L k molif pressure is in mm Hg or torr R = mm Hg k molif pressure is in kPa R = kPa L k mol