Presentation on theme: "Use of Gas Mixing Equations and Simulation Approaches in Design of Mine Inertisation Systems HW Wu and ADS Gillies 13th United States/North American Mine."— Presentation transcript:
1Use of Gas Mixing Equations and Simulation Approaches in Design of Mine Inertisation Systems HW Wu and ADS Gillies13th United States/North American Mine Ventilation Symposium, June 20101
2Objective of the studyTo examine gas mixing and dilution approaches to give a better understanding of how acceptable levels of mine atmosphere contaminants can be evaluated.As an example the interaction between gases from inertisation systems and the underground mine atmosphere can be evaluated to assist in design of the mine inertisation system.Inertisation approaches include use of engine exhausts, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and diesel fired boiler units.
3IntroductionNew approaches allowing improvement in understanding use of inertisation techniques have been examined.Case studies used to examine available calculation or computer simulation approaches for predicting induced inertisation gas interaction with the mine ventilation system.Comparisons are made of the use of different approaches to estimate the time required to inert a sealed underground atmosphere situation.
4Approaches Adopted Two direct calculation approaches are the application of “commonly accepted rules of thumb” for fluid dilution or flushing of a mined space with a minimum diluting gas requirement of for instance of three times the void volume, andthe direct utilization of gas mixing and dilution equations (Hartman, et al 1997).The use of advanced fire simulation network software, Ventgraph.
5Inertisation System - GAG-3A jet engine exhaust unit (Gorniczy Agregat Gasniczy)
11Case Study I: Nitrogen inertisation To provide an estimation of the time required to inert a single entry development in an underground coal mines using a membrane nitrogen gas unit.Parameters of the single entry roadway are:Total length of sealed zone 280m with brattice sail partition,Dimension of the single entry roadway 2.6m by 5.3m., andGas make CH4 is 14 m3/hour; CO2 is 7.2 m3/hour.Parameters of the inertisation system proposedA nitrogen gas inert unit with inert line into the sealed zone and an inert capacity of 1,100 m3/hour or m3/s.Inert gas output oxygen level of 0.01 percent.
12Layout of the seal and inertisation arrangements
13Dilution or flushing rule of thumb Time determined from inert gas flow rate and mined void volumeWhere Y is volume of working space in m3, is time in seconds,Q is inertisation unit output, m3/sC is a constant set at for instance 3.
14Gas mixing and dilution Equation Where Y, Q and are as defined previouslyQg is the gas inflow, m3/sx is conc. of contaminant in the mixture,x0 is conc. of contaminant in the space initially, B is conc. of contaminant in normal intake air
15Times required with various constant values used – Rule of Thumb Time Required for the Inert system to achieve(hours)13.527.0310.5414.0517.5621.0
16Times required to achieve various oxygen levels - Gas Equation Resulting oxygen Level in the Sealed area(%)Time Required for the Inert system to achieve(hours)8.03.36.04.44.05.82.08.21.010.70.51126.96.36.199
17Correlation between constant vales, C and the resulting oxygen levels for dilution or flushing rule of thumb
18Times required to achieve various oxygen levels – Rule of Thumb Constant Values UsedTime Required for the Inert system to achieve (hours)Resulting oxygen Level(%)13.57.627.02.9310.51.1414.00.4517.50.2621.00.1
19Snapshot from Ventgraph simulation after 10 Snapshot from Ventgraph simulation after 10.2 hours with oxygen level at about 1.1% percent
20Predicted Gas Concentration in the Purge Pipe over time from Ventgraph simulation outputs
21Case Study I SummaryBased on the simple gas dilution or flushing rule of thumb with three times volume, it will take the membrane nitrogen inerting system about 10.5 hours to inert (O2 ~1.1%) the sealed area.When applying the gas mixing and dilution equation, it would take the membrane nitrogen inertisation system about 10.7 hours to achieve an oxygen level of 1.0 percent.From Ventgraph simulation it will take 10.2 hours for the membrane nitrogen inerting system to reduce the oxygen level in the sealed area down to 1.1 percent with the assumptions of leakages (every 50m) from the wide side of the heading to the narrow side behind the brattice.
22Case Study II: Diesel Fired Boiler to provide an estimation of the time required to inert a sealed coal Mains development in case of emergency using a diesel fired boiler inertisation unit.Parameters of the sealed Mains roadways are:66 roadways with a total length of 2,273m.Dimension of the roadway 2.7m by 5.0m.Parameters of the inertisation system proposedThree inertisation boreholes, one 0.76m and two 0.56m in diameter are located at 4 ct between B and C Headings.The boreholes are 54 m in length with a surface steel manifold structure to connect the boreholes to the inertisation unit.
23Layout of the Mains development area and inert boreholes arrangements
24Times required to achieve various oxygen levels – Rule of Thumb Constant Values UsedTime Required for the Inert system to achieve(hours)Resulting oxygen Level(%)1.016.77.81.525.16.12.033.44.82.541.83.73.050.12.93.558.52.34.066.91.84.575.21.4
25Times required to achieve various oxygen levels - Gas Equation Resulting oxygen Level in the Sealed area(% )Time Required for the Inert system to achieve(hours)8.019.07.022.16.025.85.030.64.037.43.542.23.049.02.560.5
26Snapshots from Ventgraph simulation after 50 Snapshots from Ventgraph simulation after 50.5 hours with oxygen level at about 3.0 percent with Portal seals, R=1,000 Ns2/m8
27Predicted oxygen levels over time from Ventgraph outputs (Portal seals, R=1,000 Ns2/m8)
28Times required to achieve various oxygen levels – Ventgraph Resultingoxygen level(%)Time required to achieve inert level in hours for varying seal resistancesR=100Ns2/m8R=1,000R=10,0008.024.922.018.17.027.920.56.031.528.423.75.036.133.027.34.042.33188.8.131.526.543.736.93.053.550.542.62.566.062.353.6
29Case Study II SummaryBased on the simple gas dilution or flushing rule of thumb with three times volume, it will take the diesel boiler inerting system about 50.1 hours to fully inert the sealed Mains area.When applying the gas mixing and dilution equation, it would take the diesel boiler inertisation system about 49.0 hours to achieve an oxygen level of 3.0 percent.From Ventgraph simulation it will take between 42.6 to 53.5 hours for the diesel boiler inerting system to reduce the oxygen level in the sealed Mains area down to 3.0 percent with assumptions of resistance values for the portal seals ranging from 100 to 10,000 Ns2/m8.
30ConclusionsCase studies have been developed to examine usage of induced inertisation tools available to the Australian coal mining industry.Comparisons made of estimations of the time required to inert includethe application of “commonly accepted rules of thumb” for fluid dilution or flushing with minimum three times quantity of inert gas requirements,the utilization of gas mixing and dilution equations, andthe use of advanced fire simulation network software for and modelling of the mine ventilation system.
31ConclusionsCont.These approaches all give reasonable estimation of the times required to inert a sealed area.However use of rule of thumb or the gas equation calculations does not taken into consideration leakages in mine ventilation systems and assumes prefect gas mixing.Use of the Ventgraph fire simulation program is able to take these into account but needs careful modelling to reflect the behavior of the mine ventilation network under consideration.The direct calculations are simpler and more approximate but do not require the effort to set up the more complicated fire simulation model.