1Chapter 4: European Quest for New Land Section 1: Early European ExplorersSection 2: European-Indian Contact
2Section 1: Early European Explorers ESSENTIAL QUESTION:What factors encouraged Europeans to explore in the New World?
3Section 1: Early European Explorers What words do I need to know?1. middlemen2. expedition3. cartographer4. Northwest Passage5. isthmus6. conquistador7. skirmish8. missionary9. colony10. alliance
4Section 1: Early European Explorers PREVIEWCheck out the headings and subheadingsExamine the pictures and read the captions
5Section 1: Early European Explorers Scandinavian Vikings were possibly the first Europeans to visit the AmericasLeif Ericsson set foot in what became North America in 1001 A.D.Established a settlement called Vinland (in eastern Canada)Vikings may have been in eastern Oklahoma in 1012 A.D.
6Section 1: Early European Explorers The Search for New Trade RoutesChristopher ColumbusOther Early ExplorersSpain in the New WorldFrancisco Vásquez de CoronadoJuan de PadillaHernando de SotoJuan de OñateFrance in the New WorldLa SalleLa HarpeOther French ExplorersEngland in the New World
7The Search for New Trade Routes 1400s: European countries seeking new trade routes to the Orient after centuriesTreasured Oriental silk, perfumes, drugs, gold, jewels, dyes, teas, & spices (pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, and cloves)Shorter route to Far East: eventually landed on the South & North American continents
8Christopher ColumbusItalian sea captainBelieved best route to the Far East lay to the westEstimated distance from Portugal to Japan less than 3,000 milesAugust 3, 1492: set sail (headed West) from Palos on the Niña, the Pinta, and the Santa MariaOctober 12, 1492: landed on an island near San SalvadorMade four voyages to the New World
91497: John Cabot landed in Newfoundland Other Early Explorers1497: John Cabot landed in NewfoundlandFirst European given credit for reaching the North American mainlandVasco da Gama: discovered sea route to India around AfricaMagellan: responsible for the 1st expedition to circle the globe
10Ponce de Leon (1513): landed in what is now Florida Spain in the New WorldPonce de Leon (1513): landed in what is now FloridaBalboa: crossed the Isthmus of Panama to reach the Pacific OceanCortés (1519): landed in present-day Mexico & (1521) conquered AztecsNárvaez (1527): unsuccessful expedition to the Cape of Florida – led to his death
11Francisco Vásquez de Coronado “Seven Cities of Cibola”: false reports of houses of gold & turquoise enticed MendozaCoronado (appointed by Mendoza): led expedition (1000 men, 1500 horses & mules, and numbers of cattle & sheep)Financial disaster – yet territory claimed for Spanish empireCoronado & troops: followed a route through Oklahoma Panhandle
12An ordained priest with Coronado expedition Juan de PadillaAn ordained priest with Coronado expeditionDid missionary efforts among the IndiansHe and his group warmly received at QuiviraPadilla eventually ambushed – killed by Kaw IndiansPadilla’s helpers vowed to carry a wooden cross across Oklahoma to the Gulf Coast (do Campo route)
13Led 1539 expedition: 700 men, over 200 horses, dogs, and equipment Hernando de SotoLed 1539 expedition: 700 men, over 200 horses, dogs, and equipmentExplored Florida & other areas in the Southeast1542: wintered on the Arkansas River (died same year)Added to Spain’s land claims north of MexicoBrought diseases to Indians
141595: charged with settling New Mexico – mainly to spread Catholicism Juan de Oñate1595: charged with settling New Mexico – mainly to spread Catholicism1598: established San Juan de lost Cabelleros (first Spanish settlement in Nuevo Mexico)1601: more legends of gold brought Oñate to OklahomaHelped open the door to the multitude of changes to come
15French: looking for furs & trade Bartered for food, furs, and more France in the New WorldFrench: looking for furs & tradeBartered for food, furs, and moreFounded QuebecDid not try to conquer IndiansTreated Indians with more respectDid seek fabled route through the continent1673: Jolliet & Marquette – expedition down Mississippi River
16Desired to set up trading posts down the Mississippi River La SalleDesired to set up trading posts down the Mississippi RiverClaimed land drained by Mississippi River for King Louis XIV of FranceMurdered by frightened & frustrated colonistsHis claim led to the first French colony – eventual exploration of Oklahoma
17Explored much of eastern Oklahoma La HarpeJean Baptiste Bernard de la Harpe – established a trading post along the Red RiverExplored much of eastern OklahomaWas impressed with the Indian nations and their lifestyleAlso impressed with the landEstablished trading partners with the Indians & beginning of French trade
18Other French Explorers French: placed importance on OklahomaMid-1700s: French explorers – Pierre-Antoine & Paul Mallet and Andre Fabre de la BruyereEarly French influence evident in names of rivers, geographical features, and communities in eastern Oklahoma & surnames found in Oklahoma families
19England in the New World John Cabot (1497): provided England’s claim to North America1588: Spanish Armada’s defeat by England further ensured English dominance of New WorldUnsuccessful attempts to find fabled Northwest PassageBy end of 1600s twelve English colonies along Atlantic CoastIndian life affected by EuropeansClick here to return to Main Menu.
20Section 2: European-Indian Contact ESSENTIAL QUESTION:What were the effects on Indians of contact with Europeans?
21Section 2: European-Indian Contact What words do I need to know?economycalumetimmunity
22Section 2: European-Indian Contact PREVIEWCheck out the headings and subheadingsExamine the pictures and read the captions
23Horse SenseHorses: an immediate & significant impact on Indian lifeCalled “magic dogs” & “wonder dogs”Updated the Indians & allowed more permanent villagesExtended the range of Indian life and adventure
24PlantsIncluded maize (corn), beans, potatoes, squash, pumpkins, cacao, tomatoes, bell peppers, peanuts, passion fruit, sunflowers, & almost 50 varieties of berriesIndians, for thousands of years, grew, chewed, and smoked tobacco – it became a major export to Europe
25Europeans: brought diseases to Indians In Mexico: as many as 9 million out of 10 million may have died from diseases and/or battleSmallpox: deadliest to all IndiansImmunity too late to rebuild Indian population prior to being conqueredClick here to return to Main Menu.