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Nanotechnology and Medicine

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Presentation on theme: "Nanotechnology and Medicine"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nanotechnology and Medicine
Cancer Detection

2 History of Cancer The word cancer comes from Hippocrates, who is known as the father of medicine. Engraving by Peter Paul Rubens 2

3 The Greek words carcinos and carcinoma were used by Hippocrates to describe tumors. Carcino and carcinoma are the Greek words for “crab,” which Hippocrates thought looked similar to cancerous tumors. Photo by Stemonitis 3

4 However, the oldest documented case of cancer is in ancient Egypt around 1500 B.C.
Ancient Eqyptian Painting: The GraveChamber of Ramses The Edwin Smith Papyrus, oldest surviving surgical document Recorded on papyrus, it documents eight cases of tumors located on the breast. 4

5 There are clues that even ancient Egyptians could recognize the difference in malignant and benign tumors. Malignant (Melanoma) Benign (Lipoma) Image by Ed Uthman, MD cc by Klaus D. Peter 5

6 Causes of Cancer Hippocrates thought the human body was made up of four fluids: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. He believed an excess of black bile caused cancer. This was the general thought for the next 1400 years. Blood Yellow Bile Black Bile Phlegm Diagram by HighPoint Learning 6

7 Ancient Egyptians believed cancer was caused by the Gods.
cc by Jeff Dahl 7

8 The first autopsy was performed by Giovanni Morgagni of Padua.
This new procedure allowed medical personnel to discover blood circulation, which opened doors for more research on diseases. 1761 Portrait of Giovanni Morgagni 8

9 Abnormalities in the lymphatic system were thought to be the cause.
In the 17th century, the lymph theory was developed and replaced the black bile theory of Hippocrates. Discovery of the lymph system gave new insight into what may be the cause of cancer. Abnormalities in the lymphatic system were thought to be the cause. cc by The Emirr 9

10 Late in the 1800s, Rudolph Virchow identified that cells, cancerous cells included, derived from other cells. Portrait of Rudolph Virchow, (National Institutes of Health archive) 10

11 Other theories began to surface, linking trauma and parasites to the cause of cancer. Some thought it spread like a liquid. CT of Brain Trauma by Rehman T, Ali R, Tawil I, Yonas H Toxoplasma (blood parasite) Image provided by Ke Hu and John Murray 11

12 Karl Thiersch, a German surgeon, later concluded that cancer spread through malignant cells.
Photograph of Karl Thiersch, circa 1850s 12

13 Today we know that cancer is abnormal, often rapid cell growth.
Cancer can be caused by a multitude of things. Some habits we form can cause cancer. Positive habits such as exercise, healthy eating, and stress reduction may help prevent cancer from forming. cc by Biswarup Ganguly 13

14 Cancer Smoking causes 30 percent of all cancer deaths in the U.S. and is the cause of 87 percent of lung cancer cases. Smoking not only affects the lungs, but it can cause cancer in the kidney, pancreas, cervix, and stomach aw well as leukemia. Smoker’s lung Image from the National Cancer Institiute 14

15 Genetics plays a major role in the development of cancer
Genetics plays a major role in the development of cancer. Individuals with a family history of cancer should take extra care to monitor their health with timely checkups. 15

16 Genetic tests are available for many hereditary cancers
Genetic tests are available for many hereditary cancers. However, having a family history of cancer does not mean a person will develop cancer. It just means the chances are higher. 16

17 Environmental factors are also causes of cancer
Environmental factors are also causes of cancer. Exposure to asbestos, benzene, and the sun are all known to be a cause of cancer. Asbestos has a group of minerals found in housing and is known to cause a rare cancer that involves the lungs. Benzene is a chemical found in gasoline, smoking and pollution. 17

18 Treatment of Cancer In ancient Egypt cancer was treated by cauterization which is a method to destroy tissue with a hot instrument called the fire drill. cc by David Monniaux Cauterization Tool 18

19 According to inscriptions, surface tumors were surgically removed in a manner similar to their removal today. Malignant skin cancer Image from National Cancer Institute 19

20 In the 20th century, the medical field saw the greatest progression in cancer research. Research identified carcinogens, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Better means of diagnosis were also discovered. Photo by Linda Bartlett 20

21 Today cancer treatment can involve several different treatments
Today cancer treatment can involve several different treatments. Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are standard methods of treatment. Photo by Rhoda Baer Photo by Linda Bartlett Radiation Therapy Photo by Rhoda Baer Surgery Chemotherapy 21

22 Today some cancers are curable, and research is ongoing.
Clinical trials, which are research studies conducted with people who volunteer to take part, are great ways for scientific questions to be answered. Photo by Rhoda Baer 22

23 Clinical studies try to find better ways to prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease. People taking part in clinical studies have an opportunity to contribute to the knowledge of, and progress against, cancer. They also receive up to date care from experts. Photo by Rhoda Baer 23

24 Nanotechnology is being used in the medical field to identify and treat tumors. Intravenous injections of liposomes carrying a gene known to kill cancer cells and other molecules have been injected in mice and have effectively destroyed pancreatic tumors while leaving healthy tissues intact. Liposome Rendering by Dennis Barten Image by Cradel 24

25 We are learning more and more about cancer treatments every day
We are learning more and more about cancer treatments every day. Nanotechnology is the newest and perhaps the most promising treatment in modern civilization. Gold particles injected into cancer patients could be the answer for which we’ve been looking. Gold Nanoparticle Graphic by Jaakko Akola and Michael Walter, University of Jyväskylä. 25

26 This module is one of a series designed to introduce faculty and high school students to the basic concepts of nanotechnology. Each module includes a PowerPoint presentation, discussion questions, and hands-on activities, when applicable.   The series was funded in part by:   The National Science Foundation Grant DUE and the Oklahoma Nanotechnology Education Initiative   Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation or the Oklahoma Nanotechnology Education Initiative.  

27 Image Credits   Akola, Jaako and Walter, Michael (Designers) hakkinen_nanopartikkelit [Digital Image] Finland.. CSC-IT Center for Science. Artist Unknown. Portrait of Rudolf Virchow. [Painting]. United States. National Institutes of Health. Baer, Rhoda (Photographer) Treatment: Drugs/Chemotherapy [Photograph]. United States. National Cancer Institute. ( Baer, Rhoda. (Photographer) Treatment: Chemotherapy [Photograph]. United States. National Cancer Institute. ( Baer, Rhoda. (Photographer) Treatment: Radiation [Photograph]. United States. National Cancer Institute. ( Barten, Dennis (Designer). Liposoom [Digital Image]. The Netherlands. Wikimedia Commons ( Bartlett, Linda. (Photographer) Diagnosis: Biopsy [Photograph]. Unites States. National Cancer Institute. ( Bartlett, Linda. (Photographer) Technology: Lab [Photograph]. United States. National Cancer Institute. (

28 Image Credits Cradel (Designer) Illu pancrease. svg [Digital Image]
Image Credits Cradel (Designer) Illu pancrease.svg [Digital Image]. United States. Wikimedia Commons ( Dahl, Jeff (Artist). Isis. [Digital Image]. Wikimedia Commons ( Ganguly, Biswarup. (Photographer) Vegetables 0006.jpg [Digital Image]. India. Wikimedia Commons ( Hu, Ke and Murray, John. (Photographers) Toxoplasma_Gondii.jpg [Digital Image]. United States. The Public Library of Science ( Monniaux, David. (Photographer). Cauter DXC09457.jpg [Digital Image]. United States. Wikimedia Commons ( Peter, Klaus d. (Photographer). Lipoma of the skin. [Photograph]. Germany. Wikimedia Commons ( Portrait of Giovanni Battista Morgagni [Painting] Wikimedia Commons ( Rubens, Peter Paul (Artist) Hippocrates [Engraving]. Belgium. Wikimedia Commons (

29 Image Credits Stemonitis (Photographer). Crab Icon.png [Digital Image]. United States. Wikimedia Commons ( The Edwin Smith Papyrus. [Surgical Writings on Papyrus]. Egypt. Wikimedia Commons ( The Emirr (Designer). The Lymphatic System [Digital Image]. United States. Wikimedia Commons ( The Grave chamber of Ramses, Vizier and head of Thebes under Amenhotep III. And IV, Scene: Funeral procession, detail [Painting]. Egypt. Wikimedia Commons ( Unknown artist. Carl Thiersch ( ), German surgeon [Photograph]. Germany. Wikimedia Commons ( Unknown Photographer. Melanoma: Pathology [Photograph]. United States. National Cancer Institute. ( Unknown Photographer. Pathology: Organ: Lung (Cancer) [Photograph]. United States. National Cancer Institute. ( Uthman, Ed, MD. (Photographer). Metastatic Melanoma in Lymph Node. [Photograph] Wikimedia Commons (

30 References Going Small for Big Advances (2004)
References   Going Small for Big Advances (2004). National Institutes of Health Publication Number [Kindle Edition] Retrieved from The History of Cancer (2010). The American Cancer Society. Retrieved from

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