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Welcome to CMPE003 Personal Computers: Hardware and Software Dr. Chane Fullmer Fall 2002 UC Santa Cruz.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to CMPE003 Personal Computers: Hardware and Software Dr. Chane Fullmer Fall 2002 UC Santa Cruz."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Welcome to CMPE003 Personal Computers: Hardware and Software Dr. Chane Fullmer Fall 2002 UC Santa Cruz

3 October 182 Assignments Homework #3 – Due October 18 – TODAY!!!!

4 October 183 Class Information Midterm results: Average… = ~70% (Strong C) Low – 18 High – 46

5 October 184 Assignments Homework #4 – Due October 25 (Thats due next Friday ) Design your own resume Must use a Word Processor (ie, M$ Word) Notepad will not suffice. Details and sample resume – see class page –

6 Networking: Computer Connections Chapter 7 Part A

7 October 186 Objectives Describe the basic components of a network Explain the methods of data transmission, including types of signals, modulation, and choices among transmission modes Differentiate among the various kinds of communications links and appreciate the need for protocols Describe various network configurations List the components, types, and protocols of a local area network Appreciate the complexity of networking Describe some examples of networking

8 October 187 Data Communications Send and receive information over communications lines

9 October 188 Centralized Data Processing All processing, hardware, software in one central location Inefficient Inconvenient

10 October 189 Distributed Data Processing Computers at a distance from central computer Can do some processing on their own Can access the central computer

11 October 1810 Networking Uses communication equipment to connect two or more computers and their resources Can be PC based Allows connected users to share data and resources LAN – Local Area Network shares among users in close proximity WAN – Wide Area Network shares among users who are geographically distant

12 October 1811 Basic Components Sending device Communications link Receiving device

13 October 1812 Network Design Transmission speed (ie, data rate) Medium (wired, wireless….) Topology – Physical layout of components Protocol – Rules governing communication Distance LAN MAN WAN Technology Peer-to-peer File server Client/server

14 October 1813 Data Transmission Digital lines Sends data as distinct pulses Need digital line Analog lines Sends a continuous electrical signal in the form of a wave Conversion from digital to analog needed Telephone lines, coaxial cables, microwave circuits

15 October 1814 Signals on Wires An electrical signal reflects from the end of a metal wire the same way that light reflects from a mirror. Signals: Lose strength as they pass across the wire. Emit electromagnetic radiation that interferes with nearby wires.

16 October 1815 Modulation Amplitude Modulation Frequency Modulation Phase Modulation Modulation means imposing information on an electrical signal (called the carrier)

17 October 1816 Analog Transmission Alter the carrier wave Amplitude Modulation (AM)– height of the wave is increased to represent 1 Frequency Modulation (FM)– number of times wave repeats during a specific time interval can be increased to represent a 1

18 October 1817 Dialup Modem MODEM -- Mo(dulator)/Dem(odulator) Modulate Convert from digital to analog Demodulate Convert from analog to digital Speeds up to 56,000 bps (56K)

19 October 1818 Modem Transmission process Modulation – Computer digital signals converted to analog Sent over analog phone line Demodulation – Analog signal converted back to digital

20 October 1819 Modems Modems … Allows two-way communication Designed to either use two different signals or Agree to take turns sending data In either case, data appears to flow simultaneously in both directions. Dial-up modems Can dial the phone line and set up call Talk only to other modems Newer modems can talk to older slower modems

21 October 1820 Types of Modems Direct-connect External Internal PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association Notebook and laptop computers

22 October 1821 (A)DSL (Asymmetric) Digital Subscriber Line Uses conventional telephone lines Uses multiple frequencies to simulate many modems transmitting at once No industry standard Equipment Speed Phone line shared between computer and voice

23 October 1822 Cable Modem Coaxial cables Does not interfere with cable TV reception Up to 10 million bits per second (mbps) Always on Shared capacity with neighbors Security problem Sniffing the the wire is easy…

24 October 1823 Cellular Modems Uses cellular telephone system Slow speed (9600 bps)

25 October 1824 ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network Digital transmission Speeds of 128 kbps Connect and talk at same time Need Adapter Upgraded phone service Initial costs high Ongoing monthly fees may be high Not available in all areas Old technology -- almost dead… OBE – like DSL

26 October 1825 Transmission Asynchronous and Synchronous Sending and receiving devices must work together to communicate

27 October 1826 Asynchronous Transmission Start/stop transmission Start signal Group – generally one character Stop signal Low-speed communications

28 October 1827 Synchronous Transmission Blocks of data transmitted at a time Send bit pattern Align internal clock of sending / receiving devices Send data Send error-check bits More complex More expensive Faster transmission

29 October 1828 Transmission Types Identifies direction of data flow Simplex One direction Television broadcasting Arrival/departure screens at airport Half-duplex Either direction, but one way at a time CB radio Message sent, confirmation received Full-duplex Both directions at once Telephone conversation

30 October 1829 Communications Media Physical means of transmission Bandwidth Range of frequencies that the medium can carry Measure of capacity

31 October 1830 Network Cable Twisted pair Coaxial cable Fiber optic cable Wireless Uses infrared or low-power radio wave transmissions No cables Easy to set up and reconfigure Slower transmission rates Small distance between nodes

32 October 1831 Twisted Pair Wire Pair Inexpensive Susceptible to electrical interference (noise) Telephone systems Physical characteristics Requires two conductors Twisted around each other to reduce electrical interference Plastic sheath Shielded twisted pair Metallic protective sheath Reduces noise Increases speed

33 October 1832 Coaxial Cable Higher bandwidth Less susceptible to noise Used in cable systems Physical characteristics Center conductor wire Surrounded by a layer of insulation Surrounded by a braided outer conductor Encased in a protective sheath

34 October 1833 Fiber Optics Transmits using light Higher bandwidth Less expensive Immune to electrical noise More secure – easy to notice an attempt to intercept signal Physical characterizes Glass or plastic fibers Very thin (thinner than human hair) Material is light

35 October 1834 Microwave Transmission Line-of-site High speed Cost effective Easy to implement Weather can cause interference Physical characteristics Data signals sent through atmosphere Signals cannot bend of follow curvature of earth Relay stations required

36 October 1835 Satellite Transmission Microwave transmission with a satellite acting as a relay Long distance Incurs longer delay -- ~2.5 secs rtt Components Earth stations – send and receive signals Transponder – satellite Receives signal from earth station (uplink) Amplifies signal Changes the frequency Retransmits the data to a receiving earth station (downlink)

37 October 1836 Satellite Transmission

38 October 1837 Mixed & Matched…. Example – East and West coast: Request made Twisted pair in the phone lines on the East Coast Microwave and satellite transmission across the country Twisted pair in the phone lines on the West coast Data transferred Twisted pair in the phone lines on the West Coast Microwave and satellite transmission across the country Twisted pair in the phone lines on the East coast

39 October 1838


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