Presentation on theme: "Transportation Engineering"— Presentation transcript:
1Transportation Engineering Akhtar AbbasAssistant ProfessorThe University of LahoreDepartment of Civil Engineering,( )
2RUNWAY ENGINEERINGAn airport is a location where aircraft such as fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, and blimps take off and land. Aircraft may be stored or maintained at an airport. An airport consists of at least one surface such as a runway for a plane to take off and land, a helipad, for takeoffs and landings, and often includes buildings suchBlimps
3RUNWAY ENGINEERINGas control towers, hangars and terminal buildings. Larger airports may have fixed base operator services, seaplane docks and ramps, air traffic control, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges, and emergency services. A military airport is known as an airbase or air station.DOCKS=بندرگاہ علاقہ
4RUNWAY ENGINEERINGTerminology Aerodrome. In colloquial use, the terms airport and aerodrome are often interchanged. However, in general, the term airport may imply or confer a certain stature upon the aviation facility that an aerodrome may not have achieved. In some jurisdictions, airport is a legal term of art reservedColloquial= imply=دلالت کرنا ۔ بُنیادی حِصَّہ کا حاصِل ہونا confer=خطاب عطا کَرنا ۔ مَرحمت کَرنا ۔ بَخشا جانا ۔
5RUNWAY ENGINEERINGexclusively for those aerodromes certified or licensed as airports by the relevant national aviation authority after meeting specified certification criteria or regulatory requirements.That is to say, all airports are aerodromes, but not all aerodromes are airports. In jurisdictions where there is no legalexclusively
6RUNWAY ENGINEERINGdistinction between aerodrome and airport, which term to use in the name of an aerodrome may be a commercial decision. Airport ramp The airport ramp or apron is part of an airport. It is usually the area where aircraft are parked, unloaded or loaded,
7RUNWAY ENGINEERINGrefueled or boarded. Although the use of the apron is covered by regulations, such as lighting on vehicles, it is typically more accessible to users than the runway or taxiway. However, the apron is not usually open to the general public and a license may be required to gain access.
8RUNWAY ENGINEERINGTaxiway A taxiway is a path on an airport connecting runways with ramps, hangars, terminals and other facilities. They mostly have hard surface such as asphalt or concrete, although smaller airports sometimes use gravel or grass.
9RUNWAY ENGINEERINGAirport terminal An airport terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from aircraft. Air Field. The part of airport where air traffic land or take off, other facilities are not included
10RUNWAY ENGINEERINGAir Craft Any device that travel in air is called air craft included with engine like Aero plane and Helicopter or without engine like glider and balloon. Aero plane; Sonic Aircraft, sub sonic air craft and super sonic air craft . Landing Strip (runway + shoulder)Glider=طیّارے کی طرح اُڑنے کی مشین جِس میں اِنجن نہیں ہوتا ۔
11RUNWAY ENGINEERINGHanger shed for aero plane Approach zone The area around the runway with out fences Control Tower It is a tower in airport area to control air traffic
12RUNWAY ENGINEERING Airstrip An airstrip is a kind of airport that consists only of a runway with perhaps fueling equipment. They are generally in remote locations. Many airstrips (now mostly abandoned) were built on the hundreds of islands in the Pacific Ocean during World War II.Pacific ocean= بحر اوقیانوس
17RUNWAY ENGINEERINGHistory and development The earliest aircraft takeoff and landing sites were grassy fields. The plane could approach at any angle that provided a favorable wind direction. A slight improvement was the dirt-only field, which eliminated the drag from grass. However, these only functioned well in dry
18RUNWAY ENGINEERINGconditions. Later, concrete surfaces would allow landings, rain or shine, day or night. The title of "world's oldest airport" is disputed, but College Park Airport in Maryland, US, established in 1909 by Wilbur Wright, is generally agreed to be the world's oldest continually operating airfield, although it serves only general
19RUNWAY ENGINEERINGaviation traffic. Bisbee-Douglas International Airport in Arizona was declared "the first international airport of the Americas" by US president Roosevelt .
20RUNWAY ENGINEERINGAirport requirements site selection The selection of a suitable site for an airport depends upon the class of airport under consideration. However if such factors as required for the selection of the largest facility are considered the development of the airport by stages will be made easier and economical.
21RUNWAY ENGINEERINGThe factors listed below are for the selection of a suitable site for a major airport installation:Regional planAirport useProximity to other airportGround accessibilityTopography
22RUNWAY ENGINEERING Obstructions Visibility Wind Noise nuisance Grading , drainage and soil characteristicsFuture development
23Air Port Engineering Availability of utilities from town Economic consideration Regional plan: The site selected should fit well into the regional plan there by forming it an integral part of the national network of airport. Airport use: the selection of site depends upon the use of an airport.
24RUNWAY ENGINEERINGWhether for civilian or for military operations. However during the emergency civilian airports are taken over by the defense. There fore the airport site selected should be such that it provides natural protection to the area from air roads. This consideration is of prime importance for the airfields to be located in combat zones.
25If the site provides thick bushes If the site provides thick bushes. Proximity to other airport: the site should be selected at a considerable distance from the existing airports so that the aircraft landing in one airport does not interfere with the movement of aircraft at other airport. The required separation between the airports mainly depends upon the volume of air traffic.
26RUNWAY ENGINEERINGGround accessibility: the site should be so selected that it is readily accessible to the users. The airline passenger is more concerned with his door to door time rather than the actual time in air travel. The time to reach the airport is therefore an important consideration especially for short haul operations.
27Topography: this includes natural features like ground contours trees streams etc. A raised ground a hill top is usually considered to be an ideal site for an airport. Obstructions: when aircraft is landing or taking off it loses or gains altitude very slowly as compared to the forward speed.
28RUNWAY ENGINEERINGFor this reason long clearance areas are provided on either side of runway known as approach areas over which the aircraft can safely gain or loose altitude. Visibility: poor visibility lowers the traffic capacity of the airport. The site selected should therefore be free from visibility reducing conditions such as fog smoke and haze.
29RUNWAY ENGINEERINGFog generally settles in the area where wind blows minimum in a valley. Wind: Runway is so oriented that landing and take off is done by heading into the wind should be collected over a minimum period of about five years.
30RUNWAY ENGINEERINGNoise nuisance: The extent of noise nuisance depends upon the climb out path of aircraft type of engine propulsion and the gross weight of aircraft. The problem becomes more acute with jet engine aircrafts. Therefore the site should be so selected that the landing and take off paths of the aircrafts pass over the land
31RUNWAY ENGINEERINGwhich is free from residential or industrial developments. Grading: drainage and soil characteristics: Grading and drainage play an important role in the construction and maintenance of airport which in turn influences the site selection. The original ground profile of a site together with any grading operations
32RUNWAY ENGINEERINGdetermines the shape of an airport area and the general pattern of the drainage system. The possibility of floods at the valley sites should be investigated. Sites with high water tables which may require costly subsoil drainage should be avoided. Future development: Considering that the air traffic volume will continue to increase
33RUNWAY ENGINEERINGin future more member of runways may have to be provided for an increased traffic.