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Aphotic Zone (Deep Pelagic)Below 1000m (3280 ft) Explored < 1%
Pressure At 1000 m is 100X greater than sea level pressureSurface organisms would be crushed
After nearly 5,000 m down
Adaptations Fluid is almost incompressibleFluid in animals’ bodies match surrounding water
Dive 1000m, over an hour Lungs collapse flat
Cold 1 - 2 C (34-37 F) Body temp close to water Metabolism slowReproduce less and later Live longer
Food is Scarce 5% of food produced in the euphotic zone No migratorsNeed to conserve energy…How?
“Blobby” Flabby, watery flesh Weak skeletons No scales No swim bladderSit and float
Be small Many angler fish are 10 cm or less!Largest is 1m (3 ft) and 9 kg (20 lb.)
Huge Mouths and expandable stomachsSwallower Eel
Use vibrations to find foodHairy angler has sensitive antennae Use lateral line to sense vibrations
Go fishing! Dragonfish Anglerfish
It’s Dark! Small eyes Black, red color Bioluminescence:--To attract prey or find mate --Not for counterlighting
Sex in the Dark 1) Use Bioluminescence to ID species2) Be a hermaphrodite 3) Release chemicals to find mate
Sex in the Dark 4) Attach yourself to your mate!Males Goal: Search for female Have muscular bodies, large eyes, and organ to “smell”
Sex in the Dark Male bites female and they become fusedMale provides sperm to female
World’s Smallest Fish Male, sexually mature is 6.2 mm (less than a ¼ inch) Female is 46 mm (1.8 inches)
Disphotic Zone (Mesopelagic)150 m depth Not enough light for photosynthesis 10-20% food from surface is available
Size and Shape Small 10 to 15 cm Long flattened body
Large eyes Hatchetfish Light sensitive for dim light WinteriaLook up at surface and spot silhouettes of prey Two fields of vision
Mouths Large, hinged extendible jaws Needle-like teeth Eat anything
Sabertooth Viperfish Only a couple of inches long
Color Black, or black with silver sidesCounterillumination/counterlighting
Other things besides fish may be transparent
Bioluminescence Photophores for camouflage Attract prey Attract matesDefense
Migrators vs. NonmigratorsSwim up to surface to eat at night Well-developed muscles and bone Swim bladder Sit and wait Less muscle,flabby No swim bladder Weak bones
Lantern fish MigratorsLargest migration of life on earth 1700 m to 100 m (3 hour trip) Create a false bottom on sonar
Deep-Sea Floor rabbit fish and tripod fish
Deep sea fish Rat tail fish and hagfish
Deep sea fish Cruise the bottomFecal pellets and the occasional whale for food Larger, long bodies, strong muscles, small eyes Not much bioluminescence Dark brown, black
Mid-Ocean Ridge SystemOceanic plates are pulling apart
Hydrothermal Vents At mid-ocean ridges Seawater seeps through cracksGets super heated Forced back up through crust
Black Smokers Warm 50-68 degrees F Hot! 662 degrees FHeated water dissolves minerals When it cools, minerals deposit around vents
Hydrogen sulfide 1. Energy-rich molecule 2. Toxic to most organisms
Bacteria - ChemosynthesisBasis of food chain Use hydrogen sulfide for energy
Bacteria as producers 1. Live inside animals SymbioticBacteria get hydrogen sulfide, animals get food
Up to 2 m tall Riftia tube worm
Bacteria as producers 2. Filter feeders (mussels, clams)3. Eaten directly (shrimp scrape bacteria off chimneys)
Mussels (filter feed) and eel
Vents don’t last Organisms get “cooked” 20 - 75 yearsOrganisms get very large
Cold Seeps At continental marginsHydrogen sulfide and methane for chemosynthesis Grow slower, old and stable
Whale carcasses Decomposing - hydrogen sulfideSupports chemosynthetic bacteria Link to vents?? One about every 25 Km
Worms at whale carcass No eyes No mouth, stomachGreen “roots” grow into bone and digest fat and oils with the help of bacteria
Worms at whale carcass Females, 2-7 cm with large egg sacMicroscopic male worms living inside the females Eggs/larvae float until they find another whale Related to tube worms at hydrothermal vents
Whale bone with worms Females, 2-7 cm with large egg sac Microscopic male worms living inside the females Eggs/larvae float until they find another whale Related to tube worms at hydrothermal vents
The Ocean Depths The ocean depths include a number of distinct habitats: – Epipelagic zone - upper 200 meters; the photic zone – Mesopelagic zone – m.
Honors Marine Biology The Deep Ocean – Part 2 Module 14 April 7, 2015.
The Deep. Location Mesopelagic approx. 200m – 1000 m Dim light The Deep Sea Below 1000m 3 zones: Bathypelagic, Abyssopelagic, Hadopelagic.
Chapter 16 Lecture Slides
Into the Depths of the Sea Bria Gipson Devin Clarke Shivani Bhakta Jeremiah Moody.
Do Now Think about what you had for breakfast this morning. Think about what you had for breakfast this morning. Where did it come from? Where did it come.
Characteristics and Adaptations
Creatures of the Deep. Can you believe that…. "Over 60% of our planet is covered by water more than a mile deep. The deep sea is the largest habitat on.
Under the Sea Mackenzie Harrington. Oceans make up 70% of the Earth’s surface 97% of the earth’s water is in the oceans 5 main oceans: Pacific.
Marine Biology and Ecology. Marine biology is the study of organisms in the ocean, or other marine bodies of water Marine biology differs from marine.
The Ocean Depths. Zones of the Ocean Epipelagic- Photic Zone ( ft)Epipelagic- Photic Zone ( ft) –Sun, plants, photosynthesis, O 2 Mesopelagic-
Epipelagic environment Upper pelagic –Surface to 200 m –Neritic Over continental shelf –Oceanic Beyond the shelf Correlates to the photic zone –Most of.
Wooooo - Boogey - Boogey!
Life in the Ocean’s Depths. Survival in the Deep Sea Sunlight fades with increased depth Tremendous pressure of ocean depths – 1 atm at sea level – Increase.
VERTEBRATE ANIMALS VERTEBRATES ARE ANIMALS WITH ENDOSKELETONS VERTEBRATE ANIMALS HAVE BACKBONES MOST VERTEBRATES ARE FISH FISH CAN BE CLASSIFIED INTO 3.
Welcome to the Animal Life in The Ocean
Benthos Benthos are creatures that live on, near, or in the bottom of the ocean floor. There is a huge variety of benthos and what you find depends on.
Conditions differ away from shore.
What is upwelling? a process in which currents bring deep, cold water to the surface of the ocean is a result of winds and the rotation of the Earth.
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