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Presentation on theme: "THE DEEP."— Presentation transcript:


2 Aphotic Zone (Deep Pelagic)
Below 1000m (3280 ft) Explored < 1%

3 Pressure At 1000 m is 100X greater than sea level pressure
Surface organisms would be crushed

4 After nearly 5,000 m down

5 Adaptations Fluid is almost incompressible
Fluid in animals’ bodies match surrounding water

6 Dive 1000m, over an hour Lungs collapse flat

7 Cold 1 - 2 C (34-37 F) Body temp close to water Metabolism slow
Reproduce less and later Live longer

8 Food is Scarce 5% of food produced in the euphotic zone No migrators
Need to conserve energy…How?

9 Be Blobby

10 “Blobby” Flabby, watery flesh Weak skeletons No scales No swim bladder
Sit and float

11 Be small Many angler fish are 10 cm or less!
Largest is 1m (3 ft) and 9 kg (20 lb.)

12 Eat anything!

13 Huge Mouths and expandable stomachs
Swallower Eel

14 Use vibrations to find food
Hairy angler has sensitive antennae Use lateral line to sense vibrations

15 Go fishing! Dragonfish Anglerfish

16 It’s Dark! Small eyes Black, red color Bioluminescence:
--To attract prey or find mate --Not for counterlighting

17 Sex in the Dark 1) Use Bioluminescence to ID species
2) Be a hermaphrodite 3) Release chemicals to find mate

18 Sex in the Dark 4) Attach yourself to your mate!
Males Goal: Search for female Have muscular bodies, large eyes, and organ to “smell”

19 Sex in the Dark Male bites female and they become fused
Male provides sperm to female

20 World’s Smallest Fish Male, sexually mature is 6.2 mm (less than a ¼ inch) Female is 46 mm (1.8 inches)

21 Disphotic Zone (Mesopelagic)
150 m depth Not enough light for photosynthesis 10-20% food from surface is available

22 Size and Shape Small 10 to 15 cm Long flattened body

23 Lantern fish

24 Large eyes Hatchetfish Light sensitive for dim light Winteria
Look up at surface and spot silhouettes of prey Two fields of vision

25 Mouths Large, hinged extendible jaws Needle-like teeth Eat anything

26 Sabertooth Viperfish Only a couple of inches long

27 Color Black, or black with silver sides

28 Other things besides fish may be transparent

29 Bioluminescence

30 Bioluminescence Photophores for camouflage Attract prey Attract mates

31 Migrators vs. Nonmigrators
Swim up to surface to eat at night Well-developed muscles and bone Swim bladder Sit and wait Less muscle,flabby No swim bladder Weak bones

32 Lantern fish Migrators
Largest migration of life on earth 1700 m to 100 m (3 hour trip) Create a false bottom on sonar

33 Deep-Sea Floor rabbit fish and tripod fish

34 Deep sea fish Rat tail fish and hagfish

35 Deep sea fish Cruise the bottom
Fecal pellets and the occasional whale for food Larger, long bodies, strong muscles, small eyes Not much bioluminescence Dark brown, black

36 Hydrothermal Vents

37 Mid-Ocean Ridge System
Oceanic plates are pulling apart


39 Hydrothermal Vents At mid-ocean ridges Seawater seeps through cracks
Gets super heated Forced back up through crust

40 Black Smokers Warm 50-68 degrees F Hot! 662 degrees F
Heated water dissolves minerals When it cools, minerals deposit around vents



43 Hydrogen sulfide 1. Energy-rich molecule 2. Toxic to most organisms

44 Bacteria - Chemosynthesis
Basis of food chain Use hydrogen sulfide for energy

45 Bacteria as producers 1. Live inside animals Symbiotic
Bacteria get hydrogen sulfide, animals get food

46 Pompeii worm

47 Pompeii Worm

48 Tube Worm

49 Up to 2 m tall Riftia tube worm

50 Bacteria as producers 2. Filter feeders (mussels, clams)
3. Eaten directly (shrimp scrape bacteria off chimneys)

51 Mussels (filter feed) and eel

52 Submersible

53 Mussels


55 Vents don’t last Organisms get “cooked” 20 - 75 years
Organisms get very large

56 Cold Seeps

57 Cold Seeps At continental margins
Hydrogen sulfide and methane for chemosynthesis Grow slower, old and stable

58 Cold Seeps



61 Whale carcasses Decomposing - hydrogen sulfide
Supports chemosynthetic bacteria Link to vents?? One about every 25 Km

62 Worms at whale carcass No eyes No mouth, stomach
Green “roots” grow into bone and digest fat and oils with the help of bacteria

63 Worms at whale carcass Females, 2-7 cm with large egg sac
Microscopic male worms living inside the females Eggs/larvae float until they find another whale Related to tube worms at hydrothermal vents

64 Whale bone with worms Females, 2-7 cm with large egg sac Microscopic male worms living inside the females Eggs/larvae float until they find another whale Related to tube worms at hydrothermal vents

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