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Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Audience This presentation has as primary target audience: Parents in Congolese communities in the United States.

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Presentation on theme: "Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Audience This presentation has as primary target audience: Parents in Congolese communities in the United States."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Audience This presentation has as primary target audience: Parents in Congolese communities in the United States.

2 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Audience It is believed that giving fluoridated drinking water to children during tooth forming years protects them from dental decay. This presentation focuses on water fluoridation and childrens teeth; it is particularly intended to all those who care for young children. (CDC, 2009)

3 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Audience In general the whole population of the United States may benefit from this presentation; Healthy People 2010 plan is to have at least 75% of the United States population supplied with fluoridated water (CDC, 2009)

4 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Fluorides Decay Prevention Fluoride is known to Decrease the solubility of enamel in acid Decrease the solubility of enamel in acid Decrease the ability of dental plaque organisms to produce acid Decrease the ability of dental plaque organisms to produce acid Promote the remineralization or repair of tooth enamel Promote the remineralization or repair of tooth enamel (Shattuck, 2001)

5 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth United States Officials endorsement of community water fluoridation Community water fluoridation was Supported and encouraged by each of the last five Surgeons General in the United States; it was declared one of the ten top public health achievements of the 20 th century (Carmona, 2004; CDC, 2009)

6 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Some Pro-Water fluoridation Studies Three of studies on community water fluoridation conducted in the United States that mainly influenced official endorsement of community water fluoridation are: - Grand Rapids, Michigans study - - Newburgh, New Yorks study - Evanston, Illinois study (Shattuck, 2001)

7 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Grand Rapids, Michigans study A 15-year research in Grand Rapids, Michigan showed that children consuming fluoridated water from birth experienced 50 – 63% less tooth decay than those who dont. (Shattuck, 2001)

8 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Newburgh, New Yorks study Compared to same age group children in Kingston, New York, where no community water fluoridation was supplied, 58% of children 6- to 9-year-old, and 70% of children 13- to 14-year-old had reduced tooth decay after respectively 10 and 15 years of community water fluoridation in Newburgh, New York. (Shattuck, 2001)

9 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Evanston, Illinois study A third study was conducted in Evanston, Illinois; after 14 years of community water fluoridation supply, it was observed that 57% of 14-year-olds children experienced reduced dental decay, missing or filled teeth compared to control groups drinking water low in fluoride. (Shattuck, 2001)

10 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Reviews from the 1930s and 1940s Epidemiologic data from 1930s and 1940s showed evidences of lower decay rates in children consuming naturally fluoridated water compared to children consuming water without fluoride (Shattuck, 2001)

11 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Review of 23 countries studies In 1993, a review of 113 studies conducted in 23 countries provided effectiveness data for 66 studies in primary teeth and 86 studies in permanent teeth; the summary decay reductions was as follow: 40 – 49% for primary teeth 50 – 59% for permanent teeth (Shattuck, 2001)

12 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Review of stratified by age group data In a review of studies conducted from 1976 to 1987, stratified by age group data provided the following decay reductions in communities with water fluoridation: 30 – 60% for primary teeth 20 – 40% for mixed teeth (Age 8 to 12) 15 – 35% for permanent teeth (Shattuck, 2001)

13 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth 50-year history of community water fluoridation A complete study of the 50-year history of community water fluoridation in the United States confirmed that higher fluoride concentration in drinking water reduces dental decay, as discovered 50 years ago. (Shattuck, 2001)

14 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Contaminants in fluoride In the United States, drinking water is not fluoridated with natural fluoride; most of the substances utilized to fluoridate public drinking water contain various toxic contaminants such as: Lead, arsenic, cadmium, and radioactive isotopes. (Shattuck, 2001)

15 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Contaminants in fluoride (continued) Shattuck (2001) say that fluorine is poisonous, and the ingested amount accumulates in the body. (Shattuck, 2001)

16 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Environmental Protection Agencys opinion After reviewing all the evidence of community water fluoridation, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concluded that fluoride is toxic and useless, and shouldnt be disseminated using public water supply. (Shattuck, 2001)

17 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Food and Drug Administrations opinion For the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), fluoride - Is a prescription drug with its side-effects - Has never received FDA approval - Does not meet the legal requirements of safety and effectiveness - There is no control over individual dosage (Shattuck, 2001)

18 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth American Dental Association and water fluoridation The American Dental Association (ADA) opposes fluoride prescription drugs to infants before 6 months of age. Children aged 6 months to 3 years have the equivalent of the supplement controlled dose of fluoride in one cup of fluoridated water. (Shattuck, 2001)

19 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth American Dental Association and water fluoridation (Continued) Most children under 3 years old have an overdose of fluoride when they drink from community water fluoridation supply The ADA keeps commending the consumption of fluoridated water (Shattuck, 2001)

20 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth What dental records say A study of dental records conducted for 26,000 children in Tucson, Arizona, in 1992 evidenced an increase of tooth decay in children associated with an increase of the natural level of fluoride from 0.2 to 0.8 ppm (Shattuck, 2001)

21 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Cost effectiveness of Water fluoridation Compared to areas where there are no community water fluoridation supplies, Dentists make 17% more profit in areas with community water fluoridation supply; this is far from evidence of cost effectiveness of community water fluoridation supply (Shattuck, 2001)

22 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Opinion of other countries in the world Most of countries in the world have banned the use of community water fluoridation; in Japan, in China, and in 98% countries of Europe, they dont put fluoride in their public water supplies (Shattuck, 2001)

23 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Learning outcomes Officials of the United States should pay more attention to evidences of uselessness and adverse effects of community water fluoridation; they should ban it as did most of industrialized countries Young children should be prevented from drinking fluoridated water.

24 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Reference list Carmona, R. H. (2004). Surgeon General's Statement on Community Water Fluoridation, Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from web site: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Community Water Fluoridation. Retrieved from web site: Shattuck, A. (2001). A critique of the ADAs promotion of fluoridation. The Fluoride Debate. Retrieved from web site:

25 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Congolese Community Organizations in the United States Congolese Community of Atlanta: ideshow&gid=1&Itemid=62 Congolese Community of Colorado: Congolese Community of North Carolina- Raleigh:

26 Water Fluoridation and Children's Teeth Congolese Community Organizations in the United States (continued) Congolese Community of Oregon: Inga Association: The Congolese Community of Chicago:


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