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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii Chapter 24, part 2 The Digestive System

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 24-2 The Oral Cavity

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Its functions include: Analysis of material before swallowing Mechanical processing by the teeth, tongue, and palatal surfaces Lubrication Limited digestion The mouth opens into the oral or buccal cavity

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lined by oral mucosa Roof of cavity = hard and soft palates Floor of cavity = tongue Uvula guards opening to pharynx Oral cavity

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.6 The Oral Cavity Figure 24.6a, b

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings primary functions include: Mechanical processing Assistance in chewing and swallowing Sensory analysis by touch, temperature, and taste receptors The tongue

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Extrinsic and intrinsic tongue muscles Innervated by the hypoglossal nerve Tongue movements involve

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular Saliva watery solution electrolytes, buffers, glycoproteins, antibodies, enzymes Functions include: Lubrication, moistening, and dissolving Initiation of digestion of complex carbohydrates Salivary glands (three pairs) Animation: Mastication Flythrough PLAY

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.7 The Salivary Glands Figure 24.7a, b

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Function in mastication of bolus Contact of occlusal surfaces Contain three layers Enamel covering crown Dentin forms basic structure Root coated with cementum Periodontal ligaments hold teeth in alveoli Teeth

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 20 primary teeth AKA deciduous teeth 32 teeth of secondary dentition Eruption of teeth

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.8 Teeth Figure 24.8a, b

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 24.9 Primary and Secondary Teeth Figure 24.9a, b

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 24-3 The Pharynx

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Common passageway for food, liquids, and air Lined with stratified squamous epithelium Pharyngeal muscles assist in swallowing Pharyngeal constrictor muscles Palatal muscles The pharynx

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 24-4 The Esophagus

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Carries solids and liquids from the pharynx to the stomach Passes through esophageal hiatus in diaphragm The wall of the esophagus contains mucosal, submucosal, and muscularis layers The esophagus

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Distinctive features of the esophageal wall include Nonkeratinized, stratified squamous epithelium Folded mucosa and submucosa Mucous secretions by esophageal glands A muscularis with both smooth and skeletal muscle portions Lacks serosa Anchored by an adventitia Histology of the esophagus

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure The Esophagus Figure 24.10a-c

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Buccal phase Pharyngeal phase Esophageal phase Swallowing (deglutition)

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure The Swallowing Process Figure 24.11a-h

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 24-5 The Stomach

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bulk storage of undigested food Mechanical breakdown of food Disruption of chemical bonds via acids and enzymes Production of intrinsic factor Functions of the stomach

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cardia – superior, medial portion Fundus – portion superior to stomach- esophageal junction Body – area between the fundus and the curve of the J Pylorus – antrum and pyloric canal adjacent to the duodenum Anatomy of the stomach

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Phloric Sphincter Guards exit from stomach Rugae Ridges and folds in relaxed stomach Stomach anatomy

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure The Stomach Figure 24.12b


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