Presentation on theme: "Windows 2000 Security --Kerberos COSC513 Project Sihua Xu June 13, 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Windows 2000 Security --Kerberos COSC513 Project Sihua Xu June 13, 2014
The Three As of Security Kerberos Basics Windows 2000 implementation of Kerberos Benefits of Kerberos in Windows 2000 Outline
The Three As of Security: Authentication --the capability of one entity to prove its identity to another entity ID (drivers license), user log on to OS Authorization – the process of discovering whether you have the rights or permissions to do what you have asked to do Permission (R,W,D), Right (add user, install application) Auditing –the process of checking to see whether sth. has been done the way it is supposed to have been done Audit trail
Windows 2000 Security Default authentication algorithm: Kerberos Microsofts implementation of Kerberos: the function of Kerberos is to provide authentication of users. Microsoft uses an empty field in Kerberos to provide security ID information that supports the authorization process.
Kerberos Basics -developed at MIT -three basic functions (message exchanges) a request and a reply The Authentication Service Exchange (Logon) The Ticket-Granting Service Exchange (Getting a Ticket to Ride) The Client/Server Authentication Exchange (Accessing a Resource)
Authentication Server (AS) Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) Kerberos Authentication Server Request (KRB_AS_REQ) Kerberos Authentication Server Reply (KRB_AS_REP ) Ticket-Granting Server (TGS) Ticket-Granting Ticket (TGT) Kerberos Ticket-Granting Service Request (KRB_TGS_REQ) Kerberos Ticket-Granting Service Reply (KRB_TGS_REP) Kerberos Client/Server Request(KRB_AP_REQ) Kerberos Client/Server Reply(KRB_AP_REP) Kerberos Algorithms
Kerberos Components: Session key: a randomly generated, unique key used to encrypt parts of the message and to carry on encrypted conversations. Is generated by the AS and is provided to the client in the encrypted part of the response. Is provided to the destination server in the encrypted part of the ticket Ticket-Granting Server (TGS): Kerberos server that can validate a TGT and can provide tickets allowing access to resource or application servers Realm: a logical collection of Kerberos clients and servers. Its name is used by the client and server to identify the locations of the resources.
Kerberos Components Authentication Server(AS) Authenticator: contains information that can be used to verify that the response comes from a valid server in the realm and to prove to the server that the client knows the session key. Includes the clients current time and is encrypted by the client using the session key Kerberos ticket: a data structure that includes client credentials and session keys. Used to authenticate the client to the resource servers or to the TGT. Key Distribution Center (KDC): manages key database. Contains the user and server identification information, passwords, and other items.
Kerberos in Windows 2000 KDC implemented as a domain service includes AS and TGS Kerberos realm in Windows 2000 – Domain Each domain server has a KDC Active Directory backbone of Kerberos
Windows 2000 implementation of AS Exchange protocol: Obtaining a Logon Session Key 1.ID & password 2.Kerberos client: password to long-term key 3.DNS: domain controller for KDC 4.client to KDC: session key via KRB_AS_REQ 5.KDC:verify long-term key (Identity) 6.KDC:create session key 7.KDC to client:TGT & session key via KRB_AS_REP 8. Client: logon session key and TGT Client DNS Server 3 Where is the nearest KDC? 220.127.116.11 1 Cd71872398 TGT 2 8 6 18.104.22.168 5 4 KRB_AS_REQ 7 KRB_AS_REP
Windows 2000 implementation of TGS Exchange protocol: Getting a Ticket for a Particular Server 1,2. Read a file from Seascape Server, need a session ticket 3. Client encrypts the authenticator with logon session key 4. Client to KDC:KRB_TGS_REQ (TGT) 5. KDC decrypts TGT, validate authenticator 6,7. KDC: invent a session key, encrypt it with clients logon session key, create a ticket encrypted with Seascape servers long-term key 8. KDC to client: KRB_TGS_REP 9. Client decrypt the session key with its logon session key 2 Seascape Server Client 5 6,7 Cd71872398 TGT 1 2 Authenticator 3 22.214.171.124 4 KRB_TGS_REQ 8,10 KRB_TGS_REP 9
Windows 2000 implementation of CS Exchange protocol: Using the Session Ticket for Admission Client 2 Seascape Server 1 KRB_AP_REQ 3 KRB_AP_REP Cd71872398 TGT 4 Authenticator 1.client to server: KRB_AP_REQ authenticator encrypted with session ticket 2.Server decrypts the ticket, evaluates the authenticator 3. Server to client: KRB_AP_REP encrypts the time from the authenticator 4. Client compare the timestamp
Take a common file|open operation. In Windows Explorer, a user finds a file share. Active Directory directs the user to the location of the share. Next, the user finds an individual file and opens it. A request is made to the server from the client that contains a Kerberos ticket with the user's credential information included. The server receives the ticket and looks at the credentials. The operating system compares the credential information with the ACL on the file to determine if the user has access.
Kerberos enables cross-platform single-sign on across the enterprise
Benefits of Kerberos More efficient authentication to servers. the server does not need to go to a domain controller. It can authenticate the client by examining credentials presented by the client. Clients can obtain credentials for a particular server once and reuse them throughout a network logon session. Mutual authentication. Parties at both ends of a network connection can know that the party on the other end is who it claims to be. Delegated authentication. Kerberos protocol has a proxy mechanism that allows a service to impersonate its client when connecting to other services.
Simplified trust management. trust between the security authorities for Windows 2000 domains is by default two-way and transitive. many domains of a large network can be organized in a tree of transitive, mutual trust. Credentials issued by the security authority for any domain are accepted everywhere in the tree. Interoperability Microsofts implementation of the Kerberos protocol is based on standards-track specifications recommended to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) which lays a foundation for interoperability with other networks where Kerberos version 5 is used for authentication. Benefits of Kerberos