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PIS: Unit III Digital Signature & Authentication Sanjay Rawat PIS Unit 3 Digital Sign Auth Sanjay Rawat1 Based on the slides of Lawrie.

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Presentation on theme: "PIS: Unit III Digital Signature & Authentication Sanjay Rawat PIS Unit 3 Digital Sign Auth Sanjay Rawat1 Based on the slides of Lawrie."— Presentation transcript:

1 PIS: Unit III Digital Signature & Authentication Sanjay Rawat PIS Unit 3 Digital Sign Auth Sanjay Rawat1 Based on the slides of Lawrie Brown together with the book Cryptography and Network Security by William Stalling.

2 Digital Signature is an authentication mechanism that enables the creator of a message to attach a code that acts as a signature. The signature is formed by taking the hash of the message and encrypting the message with the creator's private key. The signature guarantees the source and integrity of the message. PIS Unit 3 Digital Sign Auth Sanjay Rawat2

3 DS requirements The signature must be a bit pattern that depends on the message being signed. The signature must use some information unique to the sender, to prevent both forgery and denial. It must be relatively easy to produce the digital signature. It must be relatively easy to recognize and verify the digital signature. It must be computationally infeasible to forge a digital signature, either by constructing a new message for an existing digital signature or by constructing a fraudulent digital signature for a given message. It must be practical to retain a copy of the digital signature in storage PIS Unit 3 Digital Sign Auth Sanjay Rawat3

4 DS types Direct DS – Using shared key, but non-repudiation? Arbitrated DS – Involves a trusted third party that checks for all requirements and validity PIS Unit 3 Digital Sign Auth Sanjay Rawat4

5 Arbitrated DS PIS Unit 3 Digital Sign Auth Sanjay Rawat5

6 X.509 Authentication Service part of CCITT X.500 directory service standards – distributed servers maintaining user info database defines framework for authentication services – directory may store public-key certificates – with public key of user signed by certification authority also defines authentication protocols uses public-key crypto & digital signatures – algorithms not standardised, but RSA recommended X.509 certificates are widely used

7 X.509 Certificates issued by a Certification Authority (CA), containing: – version (1, 2, or 3) – serial number (unique within CA) identifying certificate – signature algorithm identifier – issuer X.500 name (CA) – period of validity (from - to dates) – subject X.500 name (name of owner) – subject public-key info (algorithm, parameters, key) – issuer unique identifier (v2+) – subject unique identifier (v2+) – extension fields (v3) – signature (of hash of all fields in certificate) notation CA > denotes certificate for A signed by CA

8 X.509 Certificates

9 Example from wiki PIS Unit 3 Digital Sign Auth Sanjay Rawat9

10 Kerberos trusted key server system from MIT provides centralised private-key third-party authentication in a distributed network – allows users access to services distributed through network – without needing to trust all workstations – rather all trust a central authentication server two versions in use: 4 & 5

11 Kerberos Requirements its first report identified requirements as: – secure – reliable – transparent – scalable implemented using an authentication protocol based on Needham-Schroeder

12 Kerberos v4 Overview a basic third-party authentication scheme have an Authentication Server (AS) – users initially negotiate with AS to identify self – AS provides a non-corruptible authentication credential (ticket granting ticket TGT) have a Ticket Granting server (TGS) – users subsequently request access to other services from TGS on basis of users TGT

13 Kerberos v4 Dialogue 1.obtain ticket granting ticket from AS once per session 2.obtain service granting ticket from TGT for each distinct service required 3.client/server exchange to obtain service on every service request

14 Kerberos 4 Overview


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