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**Partial Reinforcement Schedules**

Used to demonstrate various schedules of reinforcement

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Ratio Schedules Fixed-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. e.g., piecework pay. Variable-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. This is hard to extinguish because of the unpredictability. (e.g., behaviors like gambling, fishing.)

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**Reinforcement Schedules**

Continuous Reinforcement: Reinforces the desired response each time it occurs. Partial Reinforcement: Reinforces a response only part of the time. Though this results in slower acquisition in the beginning, it shows greater resistance to extinction later on. Preview Question 8: How do different reinforcement schedules affect behavior?

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Interval Schedules Fixed-interval schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. (e.g., preparing for an exam only when the exam draws close.) Variable-interval schedule: Reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals, which produces slow, steady responses. (e.g., pop quiz.)

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**Schedules of Reinforcement**

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**Reinforcement Schedules**

The text indicates that in real life, continuous reinforcement is rare. Sometimes responses are reinforced, sometimes not. Among the most important schedules of partial reinforcement are the fixed ratio (FR), variable ratio (VR), fixed interval (FI), and variable interval (VI). Write numbers 1-12 on a piece of paper Identify the schedule in the examples that follow by writing your answer—FR, VR, FI, or VI—

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**Buying state lottery tickets and winning**

fixed ratio (FR) variable ratio (VR) fixed interval (FI) variable interval (VI) 2. variable ratio (VR)

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**A hotel maid may take a 15-minute break only after having cleaned three rooms.**

fixed ratio (FR) variable ratio (VR) fixed interval (FI) variable interval (VI) 1. fixed ratio (FR)

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**Watching and seeing shooting stars on a dark night**

fixed ratio (FR) variable ratio (VR) fixed interval (FI) variable interval (VI) 4. variable interval (VI)

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**A teenager receives an allowance every Saturday**

fixed ratio (FR) variable ratio (VR) fixed interval (FI) variable interval (VI) 3. fixed interval (FI)

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**Checking the front porch for a newspaper when the delivery person is extremely unpredictable.**

fixed ratio (FR) variable ratio (VR) fixed interval (FI) variable interval (VI) 4. variable interval (VI)

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**A professional baseball player gets a hit approximately every third time at bat**

fixed ratio (FR) variable ratio (VR) fixed interval (FI) variable interval (VI) 2. variable ratio (VR)

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**Checking the oven to see if chocolate chip cookies are done, when baking time is known**

fixed ratio (FR) variable ratio (VR) fixed interval (FI) variable interval (VI) 3. fixed interval (FI)

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**A blueberry picker receives $1 after filling 3 pint boxes**

fixed ratio (FR) variable ratio (VR) fixed interval (FI) variable interval (VI) 1. fixed ratio (FR)

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**A charitable organization makes an average of ten phone calls for every donation it receives**

fixed ratio (FR) variable ratio (VR) fixed interval (FI) variable interval (VI) 2. variable ratio (VR)

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**Calling a garage mechanic to see if your car is fixed yet**

fixed ratio (FR) variable ratio (VR) fixed interval (FI) variable interval (VI) 4. variable interval (VI)

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**A student’s final grade improves one level for every three book reviews submitted**

fixed ratio (FR) variable ratio (VR) fixed interval (FI) variable interval (VI) 1. fixed ratio (FR)

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