Presentation on theme: "Place-making and place-keeping of open spaces – MP4 Harry Smith – Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh Knowledge Environment Partnership 21 June 2012."— Presentation transcript:
Place-making and place-keeping of open spaces – MP4 Harry Smith – Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh Knowledge Environment Partnership 21 June 2012
MP4 Project Aims ( ) Funded by EU – Interreg IVB North Sea Region – Demonstrate how positive socio-economic impacts of open space improvements can be maintained in long term – Provide solutions for maintenance & management needs – Mainstream best practice in place-keeping across North Sea Region – Embed place-keeping innovations into policy – Develop shared agenda for long-term open space improvement Temalekplats playground, MalmöFirth Park, SheffieldHafenCity, Hamburg
Place-making Creation of high-quality places that people want to visit, experience and enjoy Implies a people-centred approach – Health and wellbeing – Sense of belonging and attachment – Welcoming and inclusive places HafenCity, Hamburg; River Don, Sheffield; Hailes Quarry Park, Edinburgh.
Place-keeping What happens after high quality places have been created – Retaining, maintaining and enhancing the qualities and benefits through LTM Long-term management of places – to ensure that the social, environmental and economic quality and benefits can be enjoyed by future generations E.g. trees in park growing to maturity (increased biodiversity/ aesthetic value/ interest) Woesten, West Flanders; Leuven, Flemish Brabant; Manor & Castle, Sheffield.
Place-making and place-keeping a.A process leading to a product? b.A process influenced by the type of product required? c.A two-way relationship between process and product where place-keeping is considered at the beginning?
MP4 Activites 1.Assessment of current practice Case studies Literature review 2.Demonstration – pilot projects Assess partnership and agreements Evaluate process and product Identify ways to improve, share good practice 3.Information sharing, influencing Outputs – knowledge transfer Changing practice and policy Grassmarket, Edinburgh, Scotland; Bürgerpark, Bremen, Germany; Aarhus, Denmark.
Policy Widespread area-based policy initiatives are based on place- keeping ideas Place-keeping often included in policy guidance, but not in statutory legislation – some aspects may be covered by policy (e.g. health+safety) Rules/ regulations may influence use + behaviour – e.g. through signage – aims to support long-term positive use of and behaviour
Policy Gothenburg Strategic Park Programme 5 strategies for the landscape of Göteborg: 1. Identify and enhance the characteristics 2. Make sure that green areas are accessible and within reach 3. Make sure every place is taken care of (=place keeping) 4. Make places and spaces available for the residents to use 5. Create diversified environments
Governance & engagement The processes of interaction between public, private, third sector and community partners involved in place-keeping Government does not work in isolation, but through the above relations with a range of stakeholders Participatory model of decision-making: – is underpinned by democracy – puts emphasis on consensus
Governance & engagement Shared space in Barger-Compascuum, NL Town Council Residents (Comm. Group) Reflection group (centre group) Project teamProject group Communicatio n Design Implementation
Partnerships Agreed shared responsibility for place-keeping Partnerships are effective in achieving place-keeping, especially: – a combination of public-private-third sector – where the local community is involved + engaged Emmen, the Netherlands; Steilshoop, Hamburg; Woesten, Belgium.
Partnerships Ripples in the Pond, Firth Park, Sheffield Joint partnership project between Friends of Firth Park and Parks & Countryside Service Friends Group – highly involved in consultation, securing funding, design development, tendering Ownership/Empowerment Identity – local identity & site history fed into design Design – innovative and adventurous, bespoke to the site Sustainability – ongoing maintenance and community use
Funding/ finance Funding is crucial for place-keeping but limited – ideally in place from the outset/ place-making stage Funding easier to access for place-making – place-keeping costs often not considered Tends to come from the public sector – the funding of place-keeping is not statutory – place-keeping is particularly at risk when budgets are cut
Funding/ finance From BIDs to NIDs, Hamburg Business Improvement Districts – Joint financing of public realm improvements via obligatory levy – Additional to public provision – Landowners in Germany; businesses in UK Neighbourhood (Housing) Improvement Districts – Legislated for in Hamburg in 2007 – Pilot project in Steilshoop
Evaluation Wide range of existing tools: e.g. awards, competitions, user counts, surveys but… – not a statutory obligation & not carried out regularly Evaluation often not a priority – it can be costly and time-intensive – but can lead to secure funding for place-keeping (e.g. Green Flag (UK)) Can everything be measured? – e.g. quality/ aesthetic value…? – increasing attempts to give landscape/ green space a monetary value
Evaluation Sociotope mapping, Gothenburg Lövgärdet and Eriksbo: two deprived 1960s/70s housing estates with under- used adjacent nature areas Identified high priority areas through sociotope map and park plan
Challenges Policy: How can we improve the current policy framework for place- keeping? Governance: What can and should the role of government, business and communities be in the place-keeping of open space? Partnerships: How can long-lasting partnerships be formed that ensure access to resources and deliver place-keeping that meets the needs of different stakeholders? Funding/finance: How can the economic benefits of open spaces be harnessed to secure funding of place-keeping? Evaluation: How can barriers be overcome to ensure more widespread evaluation of open space that contributes to it its long-term management? Design: How can open space be designed to facilitate long-term management?