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Social Values/Ecosystem Services Paul B. Thompson W.K. Kellogg Professor of Agricultural, Food and Community Ethics Michigan State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Values/Ecosystem Services Paul B. Thompson W.K. Kellogg Professor of Agricultural, Food and Community Ethics Michigan State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Values/Ecosystem Services Paul B. Thompson W.K. Kellogg Professor of Agricultural, Food and Community Ethics Michigan State University

2 Disclaimer

3 BehaviorReasons Why do they do that? …ask them why …learn their language …interpret their texts 1.Observe what they do 2.Identify law-like patterns or regularities 3.Form predictive hypotheses 4.Corroborate or disconfirm

4 BehaviorReasons Why do they do that? …ask them why …learn their language …interpret their texts 1.Observe what they do 2.Identify law-like patterns or regularities 3.Form predictive hypotheses 4.Corroborate or disconfirm Rational Choice People behave in ways that will best achieve pre-given ends

5 Behavior Rational Choice People behave in ways that will best achieve pre-given ends From Biology Infer them from behavior preferences To behave rationally is to maximally satisfy ones

6 Behavior Rational Choice To behave rationally is to satisfy ones preferences preferences To behave rationally is to maximally satisfy ones Now apply these tools in making public policy Rational Choice Policy should maximally satisfy preferences of affected parties. Rational Choice Policy should maximally satisfy preferences of affected parties.

7 Behavior Now apply these tools in making public policy Rational Choice Policy should maximally satisfy preferences of affected parties. Rational Choice Policy should maximally satisfy preferences of affected parties. Net social preferences for goods & serves represents the value of those goods and services Reasons …ask them why …learn their language …interpret their texts Values are a function of preferences derived from observation of behavior.

8 Behavior Rational Choice Policy should maximally satisfy preferences of affected parties. Rational Choice Policy should maximally satisfy preferences of affected parties. Net social preferences for goods & serves represents the value of those goods and services Reasons …ask them why …learn their language …interpret their texts Values are a function of preferences derived from observation of behavior. Values play a key role in the process of reasoning, and can be inferred from the study of the artifacts of reasoning.

9 Reasons …ask them why …learn their language …interpret their texts Values play a key role in the process of reasoning, and can be inferred from the study of the artifacts of reasoning. Thinking: Talking to oneself Communication: Talking with others A conscious, explicit or deliberate process that occurs in response to a felt need or problem

10 Communication: Talking with others Values play a key role in the process of reasoning, and can be inferred from the study of the artifacts of reasoning. Statements in the Optative Mood Would that Jones were here. A counterfactual or future condition is asserted as desirable for the purpose of advancing deliberation or taking action.

11 Statements in the Optative Mood Would that Jones were here. A counterfactual or future condition is asserted as desirable for the purpose of advancing deliberation. Jones presence would advance the achievement of a condition sought by parties to the reasoning process Jones presence is itself the condition that a communicatiive process had been launched to achieve. Instrumental Value Intrinsic Value

12 Jones presence would advance the achievement of a condition sought by parties to the reasoning process Jones presence is itself the condition that a communicatiive process had been launched to achieve. Instrumental Value Intrinsic Value When Assertions in the Optative Mood Are Contested Disagreement about the effectiveness, efficiency, relevance or salience of a stated value to the purpose at hand.

13 Jones presence would advance the achievement of a condition sought by parties to the reasoning process Jones presence is itself the condition that a communicatiive process had been launched to achieve. Instrumental Value Intrinsic Value When Assertions in the Optative Mood Are Contested Disagreement about the effectiveness, efficiency, relevance or salience of a stated value to the purpose at hand. That is, a reason has been presented, and reasoning continues Disagreement shows that one is simply not a member of the discourse community. One doesnt speak the language. Disagreement shows that one is simply not a member of the discourse community. One doesnt speak the language. Constitutive Value Values that function to mark and sometimes protect the borders of a discourse community or culture..

14 Ends-in-view: Aims or goals (including goods & services) that serve some further or more comprehensive end. Jones presence is itself the condition that a communicatiive process had been launched to achieve. Instrumental Value Intrinsic Value What About Ecosystem Services? The value of an ecosystm service is a function of the reasons for thinking that the service will promote some other comprehensive end. Constitutive Value Values that function to mark and sometimes protect the borders of a discourse community or culture.. Rational Choice Policy should maximally satisfy preferences of affected parties. Rational Choice Policy should maximally satisfy preferences of affected parties.

15 Behavior Rational Choice Policy should maximally satisfy preferences of affected parties. Rational Choice Policy should maximally satisfy preferences of affected parties. Net social preferences for goods & serves represents the value of those goods and services Reasons …ask them why …learn their language …interpret their texts The value of an ecosystm service is a function of the reasons for thinking that the service will promote some other comprehensive end.

16 Ends-in-view: Aims or goals (including goods & services) that serve some further or more comprehensive end. Jones presence is itself the condition that a communicatiive process had been launched to achieve. Instrumental Value Intrinsic Value What About Ecosystem Services? The value of an ecosystm service is a function of the reasons for thinking that the service will promote some other comprehensive end. Preservation of habitat for humans and other creatures is a constitutive value for some communities. Constitutive Value Values that function to mark and sometimes protect the borders of a discourse community or culture..

17 Behavior Rational Choice Policy should maximally satisfy preferences of affected parties. Rational Choice Policy should maximally satisfy preferences of affected parties. Net social preferences for goods & serves represents the value of those goods and services Reasons …ask them why …learn their language …interpret their texts Preservation of habitat for humans and other creatures is a constitutive value for some communities. This may be a constitutive value for some scientific communities

18 Behavior Rational Choice Policy should maximally satisfy preferences of affected parties. Rational Choice Policy should maximally satisfy preferences of affected parties. Reasons …ask them why …learn their language …interpret their texts This may be a constitutive value for some scientific communities Interaction, communication and conflict between and among discourse communities each defined and delimited by constitutive values is a noteworthy kind of social problem. Especially when community boundaries are drawn or reinforced along ethnic, racial, religious or gender lines.

19 BehaviorReasons …ask them why …learn their language …interpret their texts In the age of sustainability, these problems and felt needs are often named under the heading of social justice.

20 BehaviorReasons …ask them why …learn their language …interpret their texts In the age of sustainability, these problems and felt needs are often named under the heading of social justice. Or when environmental goods are at stake, environmental justice. Distributive Justice Fair distribution of burdens and benefits. Distributive Justice Fair distribution of burdens and benefits. Participatory Justice Opportunity to have voice in decisions affecting ones group. Participatory Justice Opportunity to have voice in decisions affecting ones group. Restorative Justice Recognition of identity and retribution for past harms. Restorative Justice Recognition of identity and retribution for past harms.

21 BehaviorReasons …ask them why …learn their language …interpret their texts Given that incompatible constitutive values and entrenched power inequality may lie at the bottom of the these problems in allocating ecosystem services, what should we do? We Reason We Fight

22 BehaviorReasons …ask them why …learn their language …interpret their texts Given that incompatible constitutive values and entrenched power inequality may lie at the bottom of the these problems in allocating ecosystem services, what should we do? We Reason We Fight Insisting on a prevailing constitutive value (such as rational choice) is an exercise of power. We Fight Insisting on a prevailing constitutive value (such as rational choice) is an exercise of power.

23 BehaviorReasons …ask them why …learn their language Given that incompatible constitutive values and entrenched power inequality may lie at the bottom of the these problems in allocating ecosystem services, what should we do? We Reason Implies a sustained effort to build a shared vocabulary. We Reason Implies a sustained effort to build a shared vocabulary. We Fight Insisting on a prevailing constitutive value (such as ratioinal choice) is an exercise of power. We Fight Insisting on a prevailing constitutive value (such as ratioinal choice) is an exercise of power.

24 Thank-you. Paul B. Thompson


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