Presentation on theme: "Reproductive Technology, Genetic Testing, and Gene Therapy"— Presentation transcript:
1Reproductive Technology, Genetic Testing, and Gene Therapy Chapter 16Reproductive Technology, Genetic Testing, and Gene Therapy
216.1 Infertility Is a Common Problem In the US, about 13% of all couples are infertile & this number has been increasing since 2000.Infertility is a complex problem and has many causes, including physical and physiological problems with gamete formation and hormonal imbalances
3The Major Causes of Female Infertility Infection, surgery inflammation, autoimmune disease, STDs, viral infectionsFemales have more organs in the reproductive system and so there is more chance for some problem that causes infertility. However, as it turns out, men and women are equal when calculating infertility rates.Estrogen is too low
4The Major Causes of Male Infertility Varicose vein in scrotum
5Other Causes of Infertility Personal behavior and health…Smoking or any use of tobacco lowers the chance of conceiving by 1/3Women who are significantly overweight or underweight can have problems becoming pregnant.
6Infertility Increases with Age Age affects female fertility more commonly than in males. For women, the age of 37.5 correlates to the steep part of the graph or dramatic rise in difficulty in conceiving due to the age of her eggs. In humans, females produce eggs while still in their mother’s womb, thus has all of the eggs she will ever make at birth!
716.2 Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) Expand Childbearing Options 1) Intrauterine insemination - see next slide2) Assisted reproductive technologies (ART)A series of methods used to help infertile couples have childrenHormones can induce ovaries to produce many oocytes which can be collected, sorted, and frozen for future useSperm can be pooled, or retrieved through microsurgery and frozen in sperm banksOlder women can have their eggs stored and then become pregnant (through IVF) when they are older.
8Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) The sperm from a donor are injected into the uterus when she is ovulating.
9Methods of Assisted Reproduction In vitro fertilization (IVF)Gametes are collected and fertilized in a dishThe resulting zygote is implanted in the uterusGamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)Gametes are collected and placed into a woman’s oviduct where fertilization occursZygote intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)Gametes are collected and fertilized by in vitro fertilization before transfer to the oviduct.Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)An egg is fertilized by microinjection of a single sperm (for defects in sperm count or motility)
10In Vitro Fertilization Each drop of fluid in this Petri dish contains a single human egg ready for fertilization.
11Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) uterusGamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). Eggs and sperm are collected and implanted into the oviduct (also called the fallopian tube). Fertilization occurs here, and the embryo moves down the oviduct and implants in the uterus.ovary
12Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT) uterusZygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT). Gametes are collected and fertilized by in vitro fertilization before transfer to the oviduct.ovary
13Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Polar bodyEggSpermMore direct method of getting sperm into an egg. However, this procedure allows defects in sperm to be potentially inherited by a son, if the sperm is carrying a Y chromosome.
14Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer INFO NOT ON EXAM 1. Father is infertile. Mother is inseminated by donor and carries child.Artificial Insemination and Embryo TransferINFO NOT ON EXAMThis shows the many ways gametes can be combined in ARTs.+=2. Mother is infertile but able to carry child. Donor egg is inseminated by father via IVF. Embryo is transferred and mother carries child.+=3. Mother is infertile and unable to carry child. Donor of egg is inseminated by father and carries child.KEYSperm from father+=Egg from motherFigure 16.4The many ways gametes can be combined in assisted reproduction.Baby born of mother4. Both parents are infertile, but mother is able to carry child. Donor egg is inseminated by sperm donor via IVF. Embryo is transferred and mother carries child.Sperm from donorEgg from donorBaby born of donor (Surrogate)+=Fig. 16-4a, p. 358
15In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) 1. Mother is fertile but unable to conceive. Egg from mother and sperm from father are combined in laboratory. Embryo is placed in mother’s uterus.In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)INFO NOT ON EXAM; Shows the various ways to combine gametes in IVF.+=2. Mother is infertile but able to carry child. Egg from donor is combined with sperm from father and implanted in mother.+=3. Father is infertile and mother is fertile but unable to conceive. Egg from mother is combined with sperm from donor.+=4. Both parents are infertile, but mother is able to carry child. Egg and sperm from donors are combined in laboratory (also see number 4, column at left).KEY+=Sperm from father5. Mother is infertile and unable to carry child. Egg of donor is combined with sperm from father. Embryo is transferred to donor (also see number 3, column at left).Egg from motherFigure 16.4The many ways gametes can be combined in assisted reproduction.+=Baby born of mother6. Both parents are fertile, but mother is unable to carry child. Egg from mother and sperm from father are combined. Embryo is transferred to donor.Sperm from donor+=Egg from donor7. Father is infertile. Mother is fertile but unable to carry child. Egg from mother is combined with sperm from donor. Embryo is transferred to surrogate mother.Baby born of donor (Surrogate)+=Fig. 16-4b, p. 358
16IVF has Resulted in the Birth of Millions of Children Figure 16.7Children born by IVF and their parents. Louise Brown (born 1978), the first human born by IVF, is the redheaded woman at the bottom center of the photograph.Fig. 16-7, p. 359
1716.3 Ethical Issues in Reproductive Technology Use of ART raises unresolved ethical issuesHealth risks to both parents and their offspring resulting from ARTUse of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)to select embryos that are suitable tissue or organ donors for other members of the familyRisks of ARTThreefold increase in ectopic pregnanciesMultiple births (35% in IVF)Increased risk of low birth weightIncreased risk of transmitting genetic defects to male children when ICSI is performedPGD to be discussed shortly.
1816.4 Genetic Testing and Screening Several types of testing and screeningNewborn screening – done hours after birthCarrier testing - done on family members and usually involves sickle cell disease or cystic fibrosis allelePre-natal testing – cystic fibrosis or chromosome abnormalitiesPre-symptomatic or predictive testing – late onset diseases such as Huntington disease
19Diseases and Birth Defects that can be Diagnosed by Prenatal testing Table 16-1, p. 363
20Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) Removal and genetic analysis of a single cell from a 3- to 5-day old embryoUsed to select embryos free of genetic disorders for implantation and developmentHas been used to select embryos tissue-matched to siblings with Fanconi anemia (fatal bone marrow disease) or leukemia to serve as transplant donors
21Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) Removing a cell from a day 3 embryoFigure 16.12Removal of a single cell from a day-3 embryo for genetic analysis by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Removal of one cells does not affect growth of the embryo in any way—the cells have not yet been activated to become a specific organ of the body.Fig , p. 364
23Exploring Genetics: The Business of Making Babies First successful IVF in the world was in 1978The first successful IVF in the US was carried out in 1981Since that time more than 40 hospitals and clinics have openedCharges for services can run as high as $60,000IVF is estimated to be a $3-billion-per-year industryThese businesses have little government oversight*State who has been most successful is Maryland.*
24The Genetic Revolution: Saving Cord Blood Umbilical cord blood contains stem cells used to treat various immune disorders and neurological problemsCord blood is better for transplants than marrow; it has not been exposed to pathogens and is less likely to carry antibodiesMothers should consider donating cord blood to a cord blood bank to save livesDoctors usually discuss this option with couples sometime during the pregnancy. It is usually quite expensive but can save lives or improve the quality of life for others.
2516.5 Gene Therapy Promises to Correct Many Disorders Gene therapy transfers a normal gene copy into target cells of individuals carrying a mutant alleleMethods for transferring cloned genes into human cellsViral vectorsChemical methods used to transfer genes across cell membranesPhysical methods such as microinjection or fusion of cells with vesicles carrying cloned DNAAs IVF and PGD techniques improved, some thought that it would be a way for some disorders to disappear.
27Gene Therapy Showed Early Promise The only successful gene therapy has been in a very few cases of severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)There have been a number of recent failures and at least two deaths that has resulted in a loss of confidence for gene therapyHope for gene therapy was renewed in 2011 when it was used to successfully treat retinal disease of the eye and showed promise in treating Parkinson’s disease.
29Ethical Issues Related to Gene Therapy Somatic gene therapyThe only form of gene therapy used to dateGene transfer to somatic target cellsInvolves a single target tissue treating only one personDone to correct a genetic disorder, using established ethical and medical guidelines
30Ethical Issues Related to Gene Therapy These types of gene therapy are not yet in use mainly due to unresolved ethical issuesGerm-line gene therapyGene transfer to gametes or the cells that produce themTransfers a gene to all cells in the next generation, including germ cells (Every cell in the new individual would contain the transferred gene.)Enhancement gene therapyGene transfer to enhance traits such as intelligence and athletic ability rather than to treat a genetic disorder
3116.6 Genetic Counseling Assesses Reproductive Risks Genetic counseling involves developing an accurate assessment of a family history to determine the risk of genetic diseaseCounselors help people understandMedical facts, diagnosis, and treatmentHow heredity contributes to the disorder and risk of having children with the disorderAlternatives for dealing with the risk of recurrenceWays to adjust to the disorder
32Who are Genetic Counselors? Genetic counselors have specialized graduate training in medical genetics, psychology, and counselingFigure 16.19In a genetic counseling session, the counselor uses the information from pedigree construction, medical records, and genetic testing to educate and inform a couple about their risks for genetic disorders.Fig , p. 370
33Why Do People Seek Genetic Counseling? Counseling is recommended forWomen who are or may be pregnant after age 35Couples who have a child with a genetic defectCouples seeking information about genetic defects that are common in their ethnic groupCouples who are close blood relativesIndividuals at risk through jobs or lifestyleWomen who have had multiple miscarriagesThose concerned that they may have an inherited disorder or birth defect