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Numbers and Measurements Measurement – the determination of a physical property of the sample of interest Dimension (length, width, height) Mass Capacity (how many marbles will fit in this box?) Quantity Accuracy How close a measurement comes to the true value Precision How close a series of measurements are to each other

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Numbers and Measurements Good Accuracy Good Precision Accuracy How close a measurement comes to the true value Precision How close a series of measurements are to each other Poor Accuracy Good Precision Poor Accuracy Poor Precision

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Numbers and Units Measurements always contain: Number, Uncertainty and a UNIT Measurable value Standard against which the quantity is compared. Error in measured value Internationally accepted system of measurements is called the Systéme Internationale dUnités (SI)

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Error in Measurements All measurements have uncertainty Thermometer A 45 ± 2 ˚C Thermometer B 44.7 ± 0.1

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Significant Figures Numbers in any measurement that are known with certainty with one more number that is uncertain Thermometer A 45 ± 2 ˚C Thermometer B 44.7 ± 0.1 2 significant figures 3 significant figures

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Significant Figures Rule 1 Non-zeroes are ALWAYS significant Rule 2 Leading zeroes are NEVER significant Rule 3 Confined zeroes are ALWAYS significant Rule 4 Trailing zeroes are significant IF they accompany decimal point 13411.8473 01101.364 1.064 10.3604 100 100.00

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Measurements Integrated Science Chapter 2 Section 2 Pages 14-21.

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