# Starter The radius of the moon is 1,737,000 meters. Write this in scientific notation. The diameter of a carbon atom is 0.000000000154 meters. Write.

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Starter The radius of the moon is 1,737,000 meters. Write this in scientific notation. The diameter of a carbon atom is meters. Write this in scientific notation. Convert the following numbers into standard notation: 6.7 x 106 8.8 x 10-4

Starter The radius of the moon is 1,737,000 meters. Write this in scientific notation. The diameter of a carbon atom is meters. Write this in scientific notation. Convert the following numbers into standard notation: 6.7 x 106 8.8 x 10-4 1.737 x 106 meters 1.54 x meters 6,700,000

Measurement A quantity that has both a number and a unit.
Fundamental to the experimental sciences.

Accuracy, Precision, and Error
Accuracy- How close a measure comes to the actual value of whatever is measured. Precision- A measure of how close a series of measurement are to one another. X X X X X X X

Error = Experimental Value – Accepted Value
If you boil water and the thermometer reads 99.1 C . You know that the boiling point is 100. C. What is the error? X X X X Error = Experimental Value – Accepted Value

Error Accepted Value = 100 Experimental value = 99.1
Percent Error = Error Accepted Value

Significant Figures

Sig Figs Measurements must always be reported to the correct number of significant figures because calculated answers depend on the number of sig figs used in the calculations.

Significant Figures How would you record the volume of liquid in this graduated cylinder? Volume = 9.6 mL Could I have recorded the volume as 9.65 mL? What about 10 mL?

What are Significant Figures?
Significant figures are the digits in a measurement that contribute to the precision. I promise this will make more sense after a few examples! The number of significant figures in a measurement represents how precise that measurement is. For example, a measurement of 3.1 g (2 sig figs) is less precise than a measurement of 3.12 g (3 sig figs).

This beaker reads: 23 mL Which is more precise??

Counting Significant Figures
Scientists need to be able to count the number of significant figures in a number. There are rules to do this.

Rule 1 Any digit that is not zero is significant. Examples: 65.2 has 3 sig figs has 7 sig figs 7,324 has 4 sig figs

Rule 2 Zeros that appear between any two non-zero digits are significant. Examples: has 4 sig figs has 6 sig figs has 6 sig figs

Rule 3 Leading zeros are not significant. These zeros are sometimes called placeholders. Examples: has 1 sig fig has 3 sig figs has 4 sig figs All these numbers have 2 sig figs! Leading zeros 52 5.2 0.52 0.052 0.0052 Remember, this zero is significant!

Rule 4 Trailing zeros in numbers containing decimals are significant. Examples: has 4 sig figs has 6 sig figs has 5 sig figs trailing zeros Leading zeros are not significant

Rule 5 Trailing zeros in numbers that do not contain a decimal are not significant. Examples: 5100 has 2 sig figs 232,000 has 3 sig figs 70,000 has 1 sig fig trailing zeros 70, has 5 sig figs

Significant Figures in Scientific Notation
For numbers in scientific notation, determine the number of sig figs by looking at the decimal number. Examples: x 103 has 4 sig figs 2.3 x 1026 has 2 sig figs x 10-4 has 5 sig fig

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