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Starter The radius of the moon is 1,737,000 meters. Write this in scientific notation. The diameter of a carbon atom is meters. Write this in scientific notation. Convert the following numbers into standard notation: 6.7 x 106 8.8 x 10-4

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Starter The radius of the moon is 1,737,000 meters. Write this in scientific notation. The diameter of a carbon atom is meters. Write this in scientific notation. Convert the following numbers into standard notation: 6.7 x 106 8.8 x 10-4 1.737 x 106 meters 1.54 x meters 6,700,000

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**Measurement A quantity that has both a number and a unit.**

Fundamental to the experimental sciences.

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**Accuracy, Precision, and Error**

Accuracy- How close a measure comes to the actual value of whatever is measured. Precision- A measure of how close a series of measurement are to one another. X X X X X X X

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**Error = Experimental Value – Accepted Value**

If you boil water and the thermometer reads 99.1 C . You know that the boiling point is 100. C. What is the error? X X X X Error = Experimental Value – Accepted Value

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**Error Accepted Value = 100 Experimental value = 99.1**

Percent Error = Error Accepted Value

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Significant Figures

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Sig Figs Measurements must always be reported to the correct number of significant figures because calculated answers depend on the number of sig figs used in the calculations.

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Significant Figures How would you record the volume of liquid in this graduated cylinder? Volume = 9.6 mL Could I have recorded the volume as 9.65 mL? What about 10 mL?

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**What are Significant Figures?**

Significant figures are the digits in a measurement that contribute to the precision. I promise this will make more sense after a few examples! The number of significant figures in a measurement represents how precise that measurement is. For example, a measurement of 3.1 g (2 sig figs) is less precise than a measurement of 3.12 g (3 sig figs).

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**Comparison This graduated cylinder reads: 42.9 mL**

This beaker reads: 23 mL Which is more precise??

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**Counting Significant Figures**

Scientists need to be able to count the number of significant figures in a number. There are rules to do this.

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Rule 1 Any digit that is not zero is significant. Examples: 65.2 has 3 sig figs has 7 sig figs 7,324 has 4 sig figs

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Rule 2 Zeros that appear between any two non-zero digits are significant. Examples: has 4 sig figs has 6 sig figs has 6 sig figs

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Rule 3 Leading zeros are not significant. These zeros are sometimes called placeholders. Examples: has 1 sig fig has 3 sig figs has 4 sig figs All these numbers have 2 sig figs! Leading zeros 52 5.2 0.52 0.052 0.0052 Remember, this zero is significant!

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Rule 4 Trailing zeros in numbers containing decimals are significant. Examples: has 4 sig figs has 6 sig figs has 5 sig figs trailing zeros Leading zeros are not significant

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Rule 5 Trailing zeros in numbers that do not contain a decimal are not significant. Examples: 5100 has 2 sig figs 232,000 has 3 sig figs 70,000 has 1 sig fig trailing zeros 70, has 5 sig figs

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**Significant Figures in Scientific Notation**

For numbers in scientific notation, determine the number of sig figs by looking at the decimal number. Examples: x 103 has 4 sig figs 2.3 x 1026 has 2 sig figs x 10-4 has 5 sig fig

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