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Roadmap for Cathode Materials for Electric Vehicles Joe DiCarlo August 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Roadmap for Cathode Materials for Electric Vehicles Joe DiCarlo August 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Roadmap for Cathode Materials for Electric Vehicles Joe DiCarlo August 2012

2 2 2 1 | Introduction BASF 2 | BASFs Battery Material Activities 3 | Cathode Portfolio 4 | Next Generation Cathodes 5 | Summary

3 BASF Headquarter in Ludwigshafen, Germany

4 4 BASF – The Chemical Company The Worlds Leading Chemical Company We create Chemistry for a sustainable future We combine economical success with social responsibility and the protection of the environment Sales 2011: m 73,497 EBIT 2011: m 8,586 Employees (December 31, 2011): 111,000 About 1,100 new patents filed in Verbund sites and about 390 production sites

5 BASF and the Automotive Industry ca 10 – 15 % of total BASF Sales

6 6 Electrical energy efficiency Solar roof with transparent organic solar cells Transparent organic OLEDs Smart Forvision in Cooperation with BASF Technologies for the Car of Tomorrow Chemistry as Enabler of Electromobility Temperature management IR-reflecting films/pigments High performance foams for insulation Multifunctional lightweight construction Lightweight ergonomically designed seats Thermoplastic polyamide wheel Go online at

7 7 7 1 | Introduction BASF 2 | BASFs Battery Material Activities 3 | Cathode Portfolio 4 | Next Generation Cathodes 5 | Summary

8 BASF products BASF R&D Li-Intercalation Anode Electrolyte Cathode Binder Li-Batteries for Automotive Applications Overview: Lithium Ion Battery Material Solutions by BASF Battery Cell Chemistry: Decrease cost Increase range Increase lifetime

9 Raw MaterialsCellsPackOEMMaterials BASF is a Material Supplier for LiBs BASF Customer/Partner The battery determines characteristics of an electric vehicle Range, costs, safety,… The battery allows for differentiation and value creation Challenging technology and chance for chemistry / engineering / OEMs Materials are the heart of the battery cell Chemistry plays a central role as material supplier

10 Strategy: Strengthen Organic Growth of BASF Battery Materials BASF Battery Unit: Investments and Acquisitions by BASF NiMH x POST-Li-ION Ovonic Battery Company: Acquisition (2.2012) CATHODES Li-Ion ELECTROLYTES Merck Elektrolyte: Acquisition of Elektrolyte Activities of Merck (2.2012) LFP License: Licensing agreement to acquire LFP technology from LiFePO4+C (4.2012) Sion Power: Investment of 50mio USD (1.2012) Novolyte: Acquisition of Business (4.2012)

11 11 1 | Introduction BASF 2 | BASFs Battery Material Activities 3 | Cathode Portfolio 4 | Next Generation Cathodes 5 | Summary

12 Mn Co NCM-111 NCM-433 NCM-424 NCM-523 NCM-622 NCM-514 NCM-811 Co (LCO) Ni (LNO)Mn (LMO) NCM-929 HE-NCMs HV spinel LNCO NCM-415 High capacity – low safety region Classic high stability region Lower cost region Ni Phase Diagram BASF Cathode – Portfolio For Today, Tomorrow and … the Future: HE-NCM: HV-Spinel: NCM (xyz): Example: Li 1+x (Ni 0.33 Co 0.33 Mn 0.33 ) 1-x O 2 Today Tomorrow LFP: LiFePO 4 + known materials, demonstrated technology - Low energy content + Higher energy content - Development stage Future Li-S Li-Air + Higher energy content - (Pre) R&D stage BASF has licensed broad cathode patent portfolio from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) covering NCMs BASF licensed global rights for the production and sale of LFP from LiFePO4+C Licensing AG, Switzerland

13 13 Picture: Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol 17, Thackeray et al. 1 | Introduction BASF 2 | BASFs Battery Material Activities 3 | Cathode Portfolio 4 | Next Generation Cathodes 5 | Summary

14 1: HE-NCMs High Energy NCMs: Capacity increase at slightly lower av. Voltage

15 15 Improvements High Energy HE-NCM Capacity at 1C [mAh/g] Irreversible Capacity [%] Tap density [g/ml] All Materials scaled to pilot plant scale at 100kg Improvement of BASF HE-NCMs (last 5 Quarters):

16 16 Morphology BASF HE-NCM Materials D50 = 16 µm 1500 : 1 20µm D50 = 11 µm 20µm 1500 : 1 Control of particle size and Improved Particle Morphology:

17 17 BASFs HE-NCM Rate Capability Improved Capacity vs. C-Rate capability: ,1110 C-Rate Capacity [mAh/g] 2C 4C Half-cell / Li-anode

18 18 BASF HED TM HE-NCMs NCM-523 HE-NCM Specific capacity [Ah/kg] Cycle No. 25°C C Cycling Stability of HE-NCM (Graphite Anode) vs. normal voltage NCMs

19 2: HV-Spinel High Voltage Spinel: Voltage increase at slightly lower Capacity Discharge profiles BASF HV spinel vs. NCM-111 and LFP Capacity [Ah/kg] Voltage [V] NCM-111 HV spinel E = Q × U LFP High Voltage Region

20 20 BASF HED TM HV-spinel Cycle No. 25°C, 1.0 C 4.25V – 4.80V Specific capacity [Ah/kg] Standard cell chemistry Cycling Stability of HV Spinel (Pouch Cell vs Graphite) Cell chemistry 1 (additives in electrolyte) Cell chemistry 2 (modification)

21 Comparison of Cathodes Material Specific capacity [Ah/kg] Av. voltage vs. Li/Li + [V] Specific Energy Density [Wh/kg] NCM NCM HE-NCM HV Spinel LMO Spinel LFP How much of it can be realized on the cell level ? HE-NCM, HV-Spinel cathode material can deliver up to 65 % more specific energy density vs. NCM-111 Energy Density of different Cathode Materials:

22 Energy Density on the Layer Level CuAlanodeseparatorcathode separatoranodeCu anode Energy Density on Layer Level: repeating units of Anode, Cathode Current Collectors, Electrolyte Thickness [µm] PorosityLayer density [g/cm 3 ] % active material Aluminum foil180%2.7 Cathode20030%Dependent on cathode material 92% Separator2050%0.7 AnodeBalanced on cathode 25%Dependent on anode material 92% Copper foil120%8.9 Parameters Layer level The pores are filled with electrolyte of density 1.3 g/cm 3. The anode thickness is calculated, so that the following balancing equation is fulfilled: 1 st cycle charge capacity per cm 2 of cathode = capacity per cm 2 of anode 1 st cycle charge capacity = specific capacity / (100% – irrev. Capacity) Irreversible capacity on the anode (SEI formation) and anode over-sizing is neglected in the model.

23 Comparison Cathodes on the Layer Level Grav. Energy Density [Wh/kg] Comparison to NCM-111 Vol. Energy Density [Wh/l] Comparison to NCM-111 NCM (Reference) 0%804 (Reference) 0% NCM %833+4% HE-NCM379+29%949+18% HV Spinel320+9%881+10% LMO Spinel257-12%709-12% LFP259-12%641-20% HE-NCM and HV-Spinel cathode materials provide significant energy density advantage on the cell level Gravimetric and Volumetric Energy Density on the Layer Level:

24 Metal Costs Comparison NCM vs. HE-NCM / Spinel Pure metal value fluctuations in 10y period in 1 kg of NCM-111, HE-NCM and Spinel Average Metals costs over the last 10 year (USD/kg) Lithium utilization (%) NCM % HE-NCM2-1180% HV-Spinel2-1199% Next generation cathode materials with marked improvements in costs and energy content.

25 Summary: BASF is a committed supplier of materials for Lithium-Ion-Batteries Cathode Materials (NCMs, LFP), Electrolytes and Technical Polymers are commercial products of BASF Next Generation Materials such as HE-NCM and HV-spinel offer significant advantage of energy density BASF develops these novel cathode materials tailor-made for high-energy applications BASF will improve performance of todays Lithium Ion Batteries with an optimized combination of materials like HE-NCM and tailor-made electrolytes


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