2Buffer SolutionsA buffer solution is a solution that changes pH only slightly when small amounts of a strong acid or a strong base are added.A buffer contains significant concentrations of botha weak acid and its conjugate base, ora weak base and its conjugate acid.
3Importance of Buffers Our blood is buffered to a pH of 7.4 Buffers are used when pH must be controlled in experiments.ProteinsEnzymes
4Sodium Acetate BufferThis buffer relies on the dissociation reaction of acetic acid.CH3COOH CH3COO- + H+
5Pure water increases in pH by about 5 pH units when the OH– is added, and decreases by about 5 pH units when the H3O+ is added.In contrast, the same amounts of OH– and H3O+ added to a buffer solution barely change the pH.
6Buffer Capacity and Buffer Range There is a limit to the ability of a buffer solution to neutralize added acid or base.This buffer capacity is reached before either buffer component has been consumed.As a rule, a buffer is most effective if the concentrations of the buffer acid and its conjugate base are equal or nearly so.