Presentation on theme: "BUFFER SOLUTIONS LAB 9. INTRODUCTION Adding trace amount of acid to water will result in increase in H + concentration. In the same manner, adding trace."— Presentation transcript:
BUFFER SOLUTIONS LAB 9
INTRODUCTION Adding trace amount of acid to water will result in increase in H + concentration. In the same manner, adding trace amount of alkali eg. NaOH to pure water will result in increase of OH − So we can say that water has no ability to resist change in H + concentration or pH. (pH = − log [H + ])
WHAT IS A BUFFER SOLUTION? Buffer solution: Is a system that possesses the property of resisting change in the pH with the addition of small amount of strong acid or base. The efficiency of the system called buffer capacity.
COMPOSITION Buffer solution is usually composed of a weak acid and a salt of the acid eg. Acetic acid and sodium acetate, or weak base and a salt of the base eg. Ammonium hydroxide and ammonium chloride.
WEAK ACID BUFFER
Dissociation constants of some weak acids at 25 °C ACID Acetic acid1.75 x Benzoic acid6.4 x Formic acid1.76 x Lactic acid1.38 x Salicylic1.06 x 10 -3
WEAK ACID BUFFER
WEAK BASE BUFFER
PRACTICE PROBLEMS 1.the dissociation constant K a of acetic acid is 1.75 x at 25 °C. Calculate its pK a value. 2.What is the pH of a buffer solution prepared with 0.05 M sodium borate and M boric acid? The pK a of boric acid is 9.24 at 25 °C. 3.What is the pH of a buffer solution prepared with 0.05 M ammonia and 0.05 M ammonium chloride? The K b of ammonia is 1.8 x at 25 °C. 4.What molar ratio of salt/acid is required to prepare a sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer solution with a pH of 5.76? pK a of acetic acid is 4.76 at 25 °C.
PRACTICE PROBLEMS 5.The molar ratio of sodium acetate to acetic acid in a buffer solution with a pH of 5.76 is 10:1. Assuming the total buffer concentration is 2.2 x mol/L, how many grams of sodium acetate (m.w. 82) and how many grams of acetic acid (m.w. 60) should be used in preparing a liter of the solution? 6.Calculate the change in pH after adding 0.04 mol of sodium hydroxide to a liter of buffer solution containing 0.2 M concentration of sodium acetate and acetic acid. The pK a of acetic acid is 4.76 at 25 °C. 7.What is the pH of buffer solution prepared with M sodium acetate and 0.01 M acetic acid? The pK a of acetic acid is 4.76 at 25 °C.
HOME WORK 1.What is the change in pH with addition of 0.01 hydrochloric acid to a liter of buffer solution containing 0.05 M of ammonia and 0.05 M ammonium chloride? K b of ammonia is 1.8 x at 25 °C. 2.The dissociation constant of ethanolamine is 2.77 x at 25 °C. Calculate pK b