Presentation on theme: "Ljubljana, 25th November TRAFUT – Training for the Future"— Presentation transcript:
1Ljubljana, 25th November 2011 TRAFUT – Training for the Future Video-Mediated Interpreting in Criminal Proceedings: Research Findings and Initial RecommendationsDr Sabine Braun Centre for Translation Studies University of Surrey
2Current situationUse of video-mediated interpreting (VMI) in legal proceedings (national and cross- border) is increasing to meet demand for interpreting, speed up proceedings, reduce costsThe Stockholm programme, the Procedural Rights Roadmap and the Directive on the right to interpretation and translation in criminal proceedings (Art 2.6) make reference to videoconferencing to gain access to a qualified legal interpreterBut initial experience and research showsVideo-mediated interpreting is challengingFragmentation of knowledgeRoom for improvementNeed for guidance
3Research issuesIdentification of the extent of current and future demand; relevant settingsInvestigation of the effect of videoconferencing on the quality of interpretingInvestigation of the effect of combining of videoconferencing and interpreting on the dynamic and goals of legal communicationIdentification of adaptated communication/interpreting strategies, best practice as well as long-term problemsDesign of solutions to mitigate problemsDevelopment of trainingDefinition of boundaries for the use of videoconferencing and interpreting
4AVIDICUS 1 and 2= Assessment of Videoconference Interpreting in the Criminal Justice ServicesAims:Identify the situations where videoconference/remote interpreting would be most efficient from a criminal proceedings point of viewAssess the viability and quality of videoconference/remote interpreting in these situations from an interpreting point of viewFormulate a set of recommendations for Criminal Justice Services on the use of videoconference/remote interpretingDevelop and implement training modules on videoconference/remote interpretingPartners: University of Surrey (UK), Lessius University (BE), Local Police Antwerp (BE), Institut Télécom (FR), Dutch Ministry of Justice (NL), Dutch Legal Aid Board (NL), Polish Society of Sworn and Specialised Translators TEPIS (PL), Ann Corsellis (internal evaluator)-
5AVIDICUS 1 and 2= Assessment of Video-Mediated Interpreting the Criminal Justice SystemWork conducted:Review of current practice and future demand of video-mediated interpreting (VMI)Available reports/literature on VMI in legal and other contextsEuropean survey among legal institutions (32 responses from 14 EU countries)European survey amond legal interpreters (201 responses from 22 EU countries and 9 countries outside the EU)Comparison of traditional interpreting and video-mediated interpretingComparative studies: assessment of interpreting quality, dynamics of communication.Recommendations for use of video-mediated interpretingTraining for legal practitioners and interpreters-
7Review of current practice and future demand 1. Settings, extent, reasons for useVideo-mediated interpreting has become common practice in many areas of criminal justice and in other settings; indications that the practice is growing.Wide variety of communication settings to which both interpreters and legal practitioners need to adapt if the implementation of VC facilities proceeds.This is complemented by a wide variety of technical standards among and within countries, which is likely to make this adaptation process unnecessarily difficult. In addition, the continued use of low-quality equipment and connections jeopardises both the quality of interpreting and the acceptance of video links among legal practitioners and interpreters.
8Review of current practice and future demand … a variety of settingsVideoconference interpreting (A)The primary participants are at two different locations (e.g. court room and prison)The interpreter is at the main site (e.g. in the court room)
9Review of current practice and future demand … a variety of settingsVideoconference interpreting (B)The primary participants are at two different locations (e.g. court room and prison)The interpreter is with the non-native speaker (e.g. in prison)
10Review of current practice and future demand … a variety of settingsRemote interpretingAll primary participants together in a single location (e.g. in a police station)Interpreter at a different location (e.g. in another police station)
11Review of current practice and future demand Growing practiceTotal: 166 interpreter responses; done VCI and/or RI: 150; never done VCI or RI: 16 (multiple answers possible)
12Review of current practice and future demand Growing practiceWhen you worked in VCI/RI settings in the criminal justice system, in which of the following stages was a video link used?Total: 150 interpreter responses (multiple answers possible)
13Review of current practice and future demand 2. Stakeholder viewsDiscrepancies between the views of judicial services and interpreters. Judicial institutions cite a number of reasons for the use of VC-based interpreting, interpreters mostly see it as a cost-cutting exercise.Respondents from judicial services accept that video-mediated interpreting is unlikely ever to be as good as face-to-face interpreting but are more willing to embrace video-mediated interpreting than interpreters; lack of knowledge; challenges of video-mediated interpreting are underestimated.Interpreters’ responses reveal a marked tension between objective difficulties of video-mediated interpreting and resistance to change. Interpreters feel excluded from discussions about VC use; fear of loss in interpreting quality, pay losses and dogged dependence on technology.Very little is known about the views of the defendants, victims, witnesses (non- native speakers). Legal representatives have voiced concerns over VC use.
14Review of current practice and future demand DiscrepanciesLegal practitioners Why do you use/consider to use VCI/RI? "witness or expert has difficulty travelling" "cost of travel would be disproportionate" "to speed up legal proceedings" "convenient for prisoners" "more efficient use of resources" "reduced interpreter travel and waiting time" "to overcome interpreter shortages" "timely conclusion of cases" "reduce costs"Interpreters In a criminal justice setting, has it ever been explained to you why an interpreting assignment needs to involve VCI or RI? “the argument is always money.” “they just say ‘Get on with it’“ “Sometimes I am just asked to interpret without any explanations” “No explanations are given to the interpreter, but we can ask for a briefing” “I usually find out the reason(s) through asking” “You can ask the court official for some guidance”
15Review of current practice and future demand Interpreters’ responsesdon’t agree =5 = totally agree
16Review of current practice and future demand Interpreters’ responsesHow would you rate your RI performance (in CJ) – by age range?
17Review of current practice and future demand 3. Research and guidanceConspicuous absence of clear rules and procedures, guidelines or policies on the use of video-mediated interpreting.At the same time, important European initiatives are under way to improve videoconferencing in the CJS, e.g. specification of minimum standards for technology including the audiovisual environment, lighting, seating arrangements, duration of VC use and other aspects (research in the Netherlands, videoconferencing guidelines on the European e-Justice portal). Judicial institutions or those who conduct pilot and evaluation studies on their behalf are often unaware of prior research, evaluation exercises and pilot studies.Research on video-mediated interpreting is scarce, but a recurring result is a discrepancy between ‘objective’ measures (e.g. interpreters’ performance) and the interpreters’ individual perceptions (the ‘human factor’).
18Review of current practice and future demand 4. ConclusionsSome caveats: some adaptation and familiarisation with video-mediated interpreting is yet to take place; hence initial reports on problems may be as ‘exaggerated’ as the oversimplified claim made by some legal practitioners, court clerks or other administrators that there are no problems at all.Crucial task for further research: disentangle subjective perceptions and their sources from actual interpreting quality in video-based interpreting.Urgently required: informed dialogue between all parties involved; awareness- raising, education and training
19Comparison: traditional and video-mediated interpreting
20Comparison: traditional and video-mediated interpreting 1. MethodEclectic approach to the collection and analysis of the data, albeit with a common core, which consisted of the following elements:1) All comparative studies – comparing the various forms of video-medited interpreting with traditional interpreting2) All studies based on simulations, using legal practitioners, interpreters and role players as suspects or witnesses.3) Focus on the early stages of proceedings4) Focus should be on small-group communication as a first stepA total of 41 interpreting sessions was conducted, of which 12 included remote interpreting, 14 used the two variants of videoconference interpreting and 15 involved face-to-face interpreting.
21Comparison: traditional and video-mediated interpreting 2. OutcomesGenerally speaking, in spite of using partially different methodologies and assessment methods, the three comparative studies came to very similar results with regard to the interpreting quality.All forms of video-mediated interpreting found to magnify known problems of (legal) interpreting to a certain extent. E.g. linguistic and cultural problems (terminological issues, culture-bound references, problems with regional accents and culture-specific behaviour) as well as problems associated with processing capacity (e.g. hesitations and repairs).The videoconference condition generated a number of additional problems, e.g. omissions, additions, distortions, lexical/terminological problems, paralinguistic problems, turn-taking problems.
22Comparison: traditional and video-mediated interpreting Main results Surrey: 16 police interviews (8 in face-to-face and 8 in remote mode; words in total) ; distribution of problems (in brackets: average per interview)FTFRIRI / FTFFTF=100%Inaccuracies89 (11.1)110 (13.8)124%Omissions68 (8.5)108 (13.5)159%Additions10 (1.3)(3.6)290%Linguistic problems: lexis/terminology, idiomaticity, grammar, style/register, coherence, language mixing204 (25.5)260 (32.5)127%Paralinguistic problems 1: articulation, hesitation, repetition316 (39.5)417 (52.1)132%Paralinguistic problems 2: false start, self-repair261 (32.6)287 (34.9)110%Synchronisation problems (turn-taking)(4.3)324%
23Comparison: traditional and video-mediated interpreting InaccurciesConceptual misunderstandings of what was said (PO: I want you to confirm what happened. INTP: Je voudrais vous en parler. [I would like to talk to you about this])Mishearings (DET: Elle m'accusait devant tout le monde. [She was accusing me in front of everybody]. INTP: And she was abusing me in front of everybody.)Misrenderings, i.e. apparently correct understanding but wrong rendition in the target text (PO: This is the ruler that was seized today. INTP: C'est donc la règle qui a été utilisée aujourd'hui. [This is the ruler that was used today]Misrepresentation of the speaker’s intentions (PO: Is there anything else you want to know before we start? INTP: Est-ce que vous voulez, euh, est-ce que vous me comprenez bien? Est-ce que vous m'entendez bien? [Would you like... can you understand me well? Can you hear me well?]Summary renditions (PO: Then I said, ‘The people at the cab office said you did [hit Ms Jones]’. INTP: Ensuite-, ensuite, euh, j'ai dit, euh, ce que les employés à la station de taxi ont dit. [Then I said what the employees at the taxi stand said]
24Comparison: traditional and video-mediated interpreting Correlations between categoriesStrong correlation between turn-taking problems (overlapping speech) and omissions; stronger in RI.Surrey study:Traditional interpreting: 3 of the 34 turn-taking problems (i.e. 9%) entailed an omission of information in the target text.Remote interpreting: at least 16 of the 110 turn-taking problems (i.e. 15%) caused an omission.Det: Et je travaillais à H et M l'année passée, à *mi-temps*[And I worked for H and M last year part-time.]Intp: *Last year*, I, I worked with H and M.
25Comparison: traditional and video-mediated interpreting 2. OutcomesFamiliar interpreting strategies (e.g. use of visual signs to stop speaker) do not always work well in a VC. At the same time, verbal intervention, e.g. to stop the speaker and clarify something, is more disruptive in a VC.Interpreters also face additional challenges from the changing communicative behaviour of the primary interlocutors (e.g. uncertainty).Additional problems: gaze and eye contact, communication management (absence of procedures), co-ordination of the talk, and rapport with the remote interlocutorsVideo-mediated sessions took longer (on average 20%).The number of problems increased faster during the VC sessions, suggesting an earlier onset of fatigue of the interpreter.However, the outcomes also suggest a correlation between the interpreting quality and the audiovisual environment (quality of the technology, set-up).
26Comparison: traditional and video-mediated interpreting Distribution of problems: timeline
27Comparison: traditional and video-mediated interpreting 3. ConclusionsBasic practical problems with video-mediated interpreting can be resolved quickly through initial training and familiarization, although the combined complexities of video mediation and interpreting may also create deeper-rooted behavioural and communication problems which have to be addressed in further research.The quality of technology and the technological/audiovisual environment seems to have an impact on the quality of the communication and interpretation; this also requires further investigation.The studies point to an urgent need for appropriate training and to the need for an incremental approach to the introduction of video-mediated interpreting with in- built pilot phases and a real commitment to adjustment as the need arises.The Directive emphasises training of legal practitioners in “the particularities of communicating with the assistance of an interpreter” (Art. 6) – training in VMI is important as VMI is becoming more prevalent, adding another layer of complexity.
29Recommendations for judicial services Identify your needsMap out your setting – who talks to whom, who needs to see/hear whom, where are the main parties and the interpreter located (is the distribution flexible yes/no), how long is the interaction etc.Involve expertise at the planning stageInvolve interpreting/linguistic, public service and technological expertise to work out the specifics of your setting and to approve your solution.Use the best available technologyProvide high-quality sound and video for all parties involved and additional equipment for the interpreter as required (e.g. headphones); use a separate document camera (for the presentation of documents, images and other material that can facilitate interpreting)Inter-pretingLegalTechnological
30Recommendations for judicial services Provide an appropriate work environment for the interpreterProvide an ergonomic and quiet work environment for the interpreter, allow the interpreter to control the equipment (e.g. volume control)Allow a “trial and error” phaseRun a pilot before large-scale purchase, implementation and roll-out of equipmentIdentify critical instances, make necessary adjustmentsAllow for stage-by-stage introduction of new technologyStart with ‘low-impact’ communication, evaluate effect of technology at each stage, assess implications for the next stage
31Recommendations for judicial services Use qualified participants and interpretersUse trained and experienced legal interpretersUse legal staff who is experienced in working with interpretersOffer training to the interpreters and legal practitionersOffer an early-stage induction before roll-out of technologyProvide continuous professional training (including awareness of wider context, mastery of technology, communicative situation and supportive techniques such as stress management)Agree risk-assessment proceduresAgree procedures for deciding whether or not a video link in combination with interpreting is appropriate, consult experienced interpreters
32Recommendations for judicial services Develop guidelines/protocols for your proceduresWho is responsible e.g. for booking, timing, testing, starting and controlling the connection; what is the procedure before, during and after the session (briefing of interpreter, beginning of session, introductions, rules during session, debriefing)Make provisions for breakdownDevelop a protocol for communication or technological breakdown; do not leave it to the interpreter to resolve breakdownsWork towards a code of best practiceJudicial services, legal practitioners and interpreter associations should cooperate to develop joint codes of best practice for video-mediated interpreting